Abraham Maslow - A theory of human motivation
A theory of human motivation (originally published in Psychological Review, 1943, Vol. 50 #4, pp. 370–396).
Devenir le meilleur de soi-même : Besoins fondamentaux, motivation et personnalité, Chapitre 2, Une théorie de la motivation humaine, traduction Emily Borgeaud, Eyrolles, 2008. (originally Motivation and Personalitypublished in 1954).
Born in Brooklyn, New York, Maslow was the first of seven children of Jewish immigrants from Russia. His parents were uneducated, but they insisted that he should study law. At first, Abraham acceded to their wishes and enrolled in the City College of New York. However, after three semesters he transferred to Cornell, then back to CCNY. After he marriedhis first cousin, Bertha Maslow, he moved to Wisconsin to attend the University of Wisconsin-Madison from which he received his B.A. (1930), his M.A. (1932), and his Ph.D. (1934) in psychology. While in Wisconsin, Maslow studied with Harry Harlow, who was known for his controversial experiments on rhesus monkeys and attachment behavior. A year after graduation, Maslow returned to New York to workwith E. L. Thorndike at Columbia.
Maslow began teaching full time at Brooklyn College. During this time he met many leading European psychologists, including Alfred Adler and Erich Fromm. In 1951, Maslow became the chairman of the psychology department at Brandeis University, where he began his theoretical work. There, he met Kurt Goldstein, who introduced him to the idea of self-actualization.Later, Maslow developed self-actualization into an area for research and application. In fact, Maslow dedicated Toward a Psychology of Being (1968) to Kurt Goldstein.
He retired to California, where he died of a heart attack in 1970, aged 62, after years of ill health.
A Theory of Human Motivation (originally published in Psychological Review, 1943, Vol. 50 #4, pp. 370–396).
Motivation and Personality (1st edition: 1954, 2nd edition: 1970)
Religions, Values and Peak-experiences, Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1964.
Eupsychian Management, 1965; republished as Maslow on Management, 1998
The Psychology of Science: A Reconnaissance, New York: Harper & Row, 1966; Chapel Hill: Maurice Bassett, 2002.
Toward a Psychology of Being, (2nd edition, 1968) The Farther Reaches of Human Nature, 1971
2. A theory of human motivation
Abraham Maslow is a well-known psychologist for his theory on human motivation, specifically the Hierarchy of needs theory.
Maslow noted that some human needs were more powerful than others. He divided those needs into five general categories, from most urgent to most advanced: physiological, safety, belonging/love,esteem, and self-actualization. Maslow first published his theory in the 1940s, and it became a widely accepted notion in the fields of psychology and anthropology.
Maslow's theory can also be defined as "intensity at a task". This means that greater the motivation, the more constant and intense one will perform a specific task. The basis behind this theory is the knowledge that all behavioris goal driven, meaning one will do tasks according to what they obtain after the task is complete. Maslow has been a very inspirational figure in personality theories.
The Hierarchy of Needs theory has four different levels before one comes to the fifth level which is full self-actualizing. These basic goals are related to each other, being arranged in a hierarchy of prepotency. This means thatthe most prepotent goal will monopolize consciousness and will tend of itself to organize the recruitment of the various capacities of the organism. The less prepotent needs are minimized, even forgotten or denied. But when a need is fairly well satisfied, the next prepotent (higher) need emerges, in turn to dominate the conscious life and to serve as the center of organization of behavior,...
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