American and soviet involvement in the middle east during 1969-1973

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The 6 days War completely changed the geopolitics situation in the Middle East; Israel demonstrated that it was not only able, but also willing, to initiate strategic strikes that could change the regional balance. Israel had seized the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank of the Jordan River (including East Jerusalem), and the Golan Heights. In the summer of 1967, Arab leaders met inKhartoum in response to the war, to discuss the Arab position toward Israel. They reached consensus that there should be no recognition, no peace and no negotiations with the State of Israel, the so-called "three no's". In the meantime, the two super powers were engaged in the so-called Cold War, a continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition. InThe United State, Nixon came into power in 1969. Concerning the Soviet Union, the Six-Day war had tarnishing its reputation, both with regards to the quality of their arms and to Soviet willingness to assist a Third World client in a crisis situation. Therefore, from 1963 through 1973, the Soviets ambition was the rebuilding of the Egyptian and Syrian armed forces so they would capable of deterringthemselves against an Israeli attack. Especially, it permits the Soviets to consolidate and expand their Mediterranean presence by strengthen its naval challenge to western naval dominance. The interest of the US/ Soviet in the ME.
1. Consequence of the Six- Day war
It’s easy to forget how bitter the policy debate in the USA was over Palestine in the 1940s; on the one side were thepro-Zionists in the domestic political arena, on the other, the Executive Branch officials concerned with the global and regional implications of a US- supported Jewish state. The American support for Israel, really start since the Israeli victory over the Arabs army. When the war began, the State Department announced: "Our position is neutral in thought, word and deed."17. Moreover, while the Arabs werefalsely accusing the United States of airlifting supplies to Israel, Johnson imposed an arms embargo on Israel and pro-Western Arab states (France, Israel's other main arms supplier, also embargoed arms to Israel). The US even had expressed a desire to enter into some sort of regional arms limitation agreement with the Soviet Union. On 19 June 1967, Johnson himself made Middle Eastern arms control,including a UN registry, one of his five principles for a comprehensive Arab-Israeli settlement. Receiving no enthusiastic feedback from the Soviet and fearing that the pro-Western Arab states would turn to the Soviet Union to fill their weapons requirement, Johnson administration put an end to the American embargo in late October.
Since the 1950s, the Soviet policy in the Middle East wasclearly shifting toward the Arabs. In most of the interpretations, it was the active Soviet support of the Arabs after 1955 that introduced the cold war into the Arab-Israeli conflict and created a potential superpower confrontation. However, the Soviets role in the 1967 Six-Day War can be seen as an unintended consequence of its deepening commitments to Egypt and Syria. They were worry about an Israeliattack so they wanted to force Egypt to help defend Syria. While the Soviet were unhappy with Syrian support of the Palestinian guerilla movement, they were determined to protect the Syrian government- and later the Nasser regime in Egypt- from a complete military defeat that would not only be another humiliation for Soviet arms and credibility as an ally, but might lead to the collapse of theirmajor Arab allies; Soviet expulsion from Egypt, Syria, and perhaps elsewhere in the Middle East; and the unilateral domination of the area by the United States. In this respect, the Soviet motivation can be seen as essentially defensive and its intention was to deter war, not to provoke it.
The Six Day war created a new reality for Israel, in that the US slowly and reluctantly came to view...
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