Japan is an archipelago of 6,852 islands. The four largest islands are Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū and Shikoku, together accounting for 97% of Japan's land area. Most of the islands are mountainous, many volcanic; for example, Japan’s highest peak, Mount Fuji, is a volcano. Japan has the world's tenth-largest population, with about 128million people. The Greater Tokyo Area, which includes the de facto capital city of Tokyo and several surrounding prefectures, is the largest metropolitan area in the world, with over 30 million residents.
Archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan begins with brief appearances inChinese history texts from the first century A.D. Influence from the outside world followed by long periods of isolation has characterized Japan's history. Since adopting its constitution in 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary constitutional monarchy with an emperor and an elected parliament called the Diet.
A major power, Japan has the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and thethird largest in purchasing power parity. It is also the world's fourth largest exporter and fifth largest importer. It is also the only Asian country in the G8 and is currently serving as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern and extensive military force which is employed in self-defense andpeacekeeping roles. It is a developed country with very high living standards (10th highest HDI). Japan has the highest life expectancy of any country in the world (according to both the UN and WHO estimates) and the third lowest infant mortality rate.[12
Main article: Names of Japan
Further information: Wiktionary etymology for the word "Japan"
The English word Japan is anexonym. The Japanese names for Japan are Nippon (にっぽん?), listen (help·info), and Nihon (にほん?), listen (help·info). They are both written in Japanese using the kanji 日本. The Japanese name Nippon is used for most official purposes, including on Japanese money, postage stamps, and for many international sporting events. Nihon is a more casual term and the most frequently used in contemporary speech.Japanese people refer to themselves as Nihonjin (日本人?) and they call their language Nihongo (日本語?).
Both Nippon and Nihon literally mean "the sun's origin" and are often translated as the _Land of the Rising Sun_. This nomenclature comes from Imperial correspondence with the Chinese Sui Dynasty and refers to Japan's eastward position relative to China. Before Nihon came into official use, Japanwas known as Wa (倭?) or Wagoku (倭国?).
The English word for Japan came to the West from early trade routes. The early Mandarin or possibly Wu Chinese (呉語) word for Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本 'Japan' is Zeppen [[zəʔpən]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA); in Wu, the character 日 has twopronunciations, informal (白讀?) [[niʔ]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA) and formal (文讀?) [[zəʔ]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA). (In some southern Wu dialects, 日本 is pronounced [[niʔpən]](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA), similar to its pronunciation in Japanese.) The old Malay word for Japan, Jepang (now spelled Jepun in Malaysia, though still spelled Jepang in...