The verb have in negative sentences and in questions
When have is the main verb (meaning it is the only verb in a sentence), negative sentences and questions are formed using the auxiliary DO, like almost all other English verbs. So, we say
• I have a cat / I don’t have a cat / Do you have a cat?
Many of you say things like I haven’t a cat and Have you a cat? which areungrammatical. This is confusing because have is often an auxiliary. And when it is an auxiliary, we don’t need DO:
• I have sent the cat / I haven’t seen the cat / Have you seen the cat?
TOPIC 1: The verb have
Transform the following sentences into negative sentences and then into questions
1. You have a lot of friends
a. Negative: YOU DON’T HAVE A LOT OF FRIENDS
b.Question: DO YOU HAVE A LOT OF FRIENDS?
2. He has visited many cities
a. Negative: HE HASN’T VISITED MANY CITIES
b. Question: HAS HE VISITED MANY CITIES?
3. She has little money in the bank
a. Negative: SHE DOESN’T HAVE MUCH MONEY IN THE BANK
b. Question: DOES SHE HAVE MUCH MONEY IN THE BANK?
4. They have never been to Paris
a. Negative: XX[ALREADY NEGATIVE]
b. Question: HAVE THEY EVER BEEN TO PARIS?
5. They will have time to see you tomorrow
a. Negative: THEY WON’T HAVE TIME TO SEE YOU TOMORROW
b. Question: WILL THEY HAVE TIME TO SEE YOU TOMORROW?
6. Sarah has two sisters
a. Negative: SARAH DOESN’T HAVE TWO SISTERS
b. Question: DOES SARAH HAVE TWO SISTERS?
7. I have my own webpagea. Negative: I DON’T HAVE MY OWN WEBPAGE
b. Question: DO I HAVE MY OWN WEBPAGE?
8. She has already thought about it
a. Negative: SHE HASN’T ALREADY THOUGHT ABOUT IT
b. Question: HAS SHE ALREADY THOUGHT ABOUT IT?
The difference between her, his, and its
In English, possessive pronouns agree with the person that possesses, and not with what ispossessed
• John’s daughter ( His daughter
• Mary’s brother ( Her brother
• The government’s policies ( Its policies
o Remember that it is used for any non-human noun
Now do the exercises for TOPIC 2
TOPIC 2: her, his, its
Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Elle a perdu son espoir ( SHE LOST HER HOPE
2. Le journal a viré trois de ses employés( THE NEWSPAPER FIRED THREE OF ITS EMPLOYEES
3. Ma grand-mère prend son petit-déjeuner à 8h ( MY GRANDMOTHER EATS/TAKES HER BREAKFAST AT 8AM
4. Mark a eu un accident avec sa nouvelle voiture. (MARK HAD AN ACCIDENT WITH HIS NEW CAR
5. Le gouverneur a fait sa déclaration ( THE GOVERNOR MADE HIS DECLARATION
Replace the underlined noun with the correct possessive pronoun :
1. Amy’scat ( HER CAT
2. John’s cat ( HIS CAT
3. The building’s roof ( ITS ROOF
4. The website’s webmaster ( ITS WEBMASTER
5. The little girl’s toys ( HER TOYS
6. The president’s shoes ( HIS SHOES
The difference between which and who
English relative pronouns agree with the noun that they replace. This means that qui can be translated as both which and who:
• Lamaison qui est au coin ( The house which is on the corner
• L’homme qui m’a parlé ( The man who talked to me
And that que can be translated as which and who
• La maison que tu vois est jolie ( The house which you see is pretty [we can also use that or nothing]
• L’homme que tu vois est beau ( The man who you see is handsome [we can also use that or nothing]
Now do the exercisesfor TOPIC 3
TOPIC 3: Who versus Which
1. Mr. Richards, who/which is a taxi driver, lives on the corner
2. We often visit our aunt in Norwich, who/which is in East Anglia.
3. This is the girl who/which comes from Spain
4. That’s Peter, the boy who/which has just arrived at the airport
5. Thank you very much for your email who/which was very interesting
6. The children,...
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