Background; idea of what is meant by the term 'anti-nature'
The Decadent Movement
This refers toa group of writers in the second half of the nineteenth century who initiated the Symbolist movement in literature and the arts. The decadent spirit was marked by pessimism and mysticism, and theDecadents, whether writers or painters, considered Art a religion, with the birth of the famous theory 'Art for Art's sake'. Decadence emphasised Idealism, and rejected and fought against the Naturalismof Emile Zola and Gustave Courbet, and the philosophical concept of Positivism. It is regarded as a transition between Romanticism and Modernism.
Baudelaire is considered to be the initiator of thedecadent spirit. While his style places him among the Romantics, the themes of death, religion, pessimism and suggestive eroticism in Les Fleurs du mal are indicative of a move towards Symbolism andModernism.
So to take a few steps back - in Rousseau we see a revulsion of the city and a celebration of nature as the antithesis of civilisation. The Romantics who followed him saw theachievements of civilisation but simultaneously loathed its unnatural, corrupting aspects. And by the mid-nineteenth century, Western culture was further removed from nature than ever, with the ever-growingbourgeois world of consumerism and industrialisation. It was from this that the decadents, like Baudelaire, emerged.
Anti-naturalism in Les Fleurs du mal
So as a writer in the Decadent movement, wecan see that Baudelaire in Les Fleurs du mal often rejects the natural scene in preference of an artificial idealism.
Rêve Parisien, stanzas 5 – 6, p. 151
– 'cataractes pesantes, / comme desrideaux de cristal'
– 'murailles de metal'
– 'non d'arbres, mais de colonnades'
Describes landscape in terms of metal and precious stones – in his idealistic 'rêve' he sees waterfalls comparable...