Biographie : abraham lincoln

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Abraham Lincoln (photo) was a president who has left his mark on the United States history not only because he was involved in the U.S. Civil War but mainly because he is one of the first to have made laws to improve the black slaves' condition at the time when the triangular trade was booming.

I- Path in life
1) Childhood

Abraham Lincoln was born in a log cabin (photo) in HardinCounty, Kentucky (photo), in 1809. He is the son of two uneducated farmers. His father Thomas, a descendant of weavers who emigrated from England to Massachusetts in 1637, was a pioneer (someone who ventures into unknown territory to settle). On June 12th 1806, Thomas Lincoln married Nancy Hanks. Abraham lived a difficult childhood, following his father through the Indiana wilderness. They movedto the South West of Indiana because of a trial. He had very little formal schooling and was mostly self-educated, with a taste for jokes, hard work, and books. When Lincoln was nine, his 34-year-old mother died. His father married Sarah Bush Johnston, with whom Lincoln became very close.

2) Adulthood

Though Lincoln attended only 18 months of schooling, he was a voracious reader.Abraham Lincoln was soon driven by a desire for social success. He served for a time as a soldier in the Black Hawk War, against the Amerindians. He had various jobs like grocer, mailman ... He do wanted to become lawyer and though books were scarce, at first, he studied law by himself. Lincoln moved to Springfield, in the Illinois, where he became lawyer, and a Republican politician. He married MaryTodd (photo) in Springfeild in 1842. She was from a wealthy slave-holding family in Lexington, Kentucky. They had four boys, only one of them lived to maturity. He began a political career whereas he was not thirty.

II- Politics and struggle against Black Slavery
1) His debut in politics

From 1828, Abraham Lincoln made a journey in the Mississippi - as he was boatman -, he wasinterested in slavery, established in the South of the USA. He already wanted to condemn it.
He was elected representative republican in 1834, and he integrated the Congress in 1847.
In 1858 he stood for election for the Senate on behalf of the Republican Party. He confronted the Democratic candidate Stephen A. Douglas (photo), and he lost, but he became famous. Then, Abraham Lincoln wonhis party's nomination to the U.S. This put him against the powerful senator Stephen A. Douglas, one of Lincoln's rivals. A series of seven debates followed between Lincoln and Douglas in towns across Illinois during seventy days, in which slavery was a main topic. (photo) This revealed the struggle he wanted to lead as President against black slavery.

2) The Presidency

On November1860, he stood for the presidential election, and he was elected representative. He expressed his opposition to slavery and his determination to limit the expansion of slavery. Abraham Lincoln was elected the sixteenth President of the United States on November 6, 1860. His election victory created a North-South divide. The South countries decided they didn’t want to be part of the union, sothey tried to start a new country. Lincoln faced the greatest internal crisis of the U.S.A., which was several states seceding from the union.
On February 1861, the South countries founded the Confederate States of America. The President decided to raise an army.
On April 12th 1861, whereas Lincoln was trying to diffuse the situation, and to reunify the country, the South countriesattacked the fort of Sumter. It's the beginning of the US Civil War. On January 1st, 1863 the Emancipation Proclamation is made public by the President. This was Lincoln’s declaration of freedom for all slaves in areas of the Confederacy. The South didn’t like this because they would have to free all their slaves if the North won the war. Slavery was forever ended with the passage of the 13th...
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