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• I – General background :


( The Australian flag clearly shows a link with Geat Britain with the Union Jack in the corner. On this flag, “the Southern Star” can also be seen. There is one point for each state of Australia.

( As it is 18.000 away from Europe the flight to go there lasts 24hours. It is 7 (in summer) to 9 (in winter) hours ahead.


( It has roughly the same size as the US. The Australian Federation is composed of six States : Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Western Australia and Southern Australia. To those six States two territories have to be added : the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory. There are few inhabitantsand lots of problems in the Northern Territory. It used to belong to Southern Australia.

( Sidney is the largest city, populated with over four milion inhabitants, i.e one out of five Australian. As it was built on a harbour, lots of people go working by boat.
Sidney is often thought to be the capital city but actually it is Canberra. Only 332.798 people live there. This city was built becauseof the rivalry between Sidney and Melbourne. They couldn’t agree to decide which city was the best one to pich up as a capital, so they decided to build a new town and created a new special territory around this town : the Australian Capital Territory, so that there is no jealousy about which state the capital city belongs to. The building started in 1913 around a lake. In 1927, the Parliamentmoved to Canberra.

( Australia is such a dry country. You can find equatorial, tropical, subtropical and temperate climates as well as deserts and grasslands. Because it is rare, peope are encouraged to save water.
Most people live along the Eastern coast where there is rain and a temperate climate. 80 % of the population live within 50 kms of the coast. Almost one third of the country isinhabited.
Europeans in a place they called “Farina Town” a year when it rained (there was grass). They thought they could grow wheat but it did not rained for five years. Central Australia is full of abandonned towns. The Creek is often dry.

( The countryside is named “the Bush”. You can find eucalyptus in Australia. There 400 different types of eucalyptus. With over 25.000 kms, Australia has one ofthe longest coastline in the world. It is a varied coastline : there are rocky coasts, cliffs, beaches.

( The current population is estimated to be around 22 milion people. It is over ten times smaller than in the US. 71.8 % of them was born in Australia. The largest group born outside comes from the UK (0.054 % of the population). The remainder come from : New Zealand, Italy, Vietnam, China,Greece, Germany, the Phlippines, India, the Netherlands, South Africa, Malaisia, Lebanon, ...

( When filling census, Australians are asked to give up to two origins, if they are willing to.
➢ 38 % of the population decribes itself as fully or partially being Australian
➢ 36 % as British
➢ 10 % as Irish
➢ 4 % as German
➢ 3 % as Chinese
➢ 1 % as Greek, Dutch,Lebanese, Indian, Vietnamese or Polish

( Indegenous Australians account for 2 % of the population, but that is an increasing number. There are three criteria to fulfill to be considered as an indegenous Australian :
1. Be an Aborigenal of Torres Strait Islander descent
2. Identify yourself
3. Be accepted as such by the community in which you live

( Almost 80 % of the population speakonly English. The main minority languges are Italian, Greek, Cantonese, Arabic and Vietnamese.

( There is no official State religion, although the majority of people are protestant catholics.

( The first Europeans to arrive were Dutch. In 1642, Abel Tasman called the place he discovered New Holland. The first English explorer was William Damper (1688). At the 17th century the Eastern coast...
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