Civilisation americaine

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The American history is marked by a peculiar institution, that is slavery
(1861-1865) Slavery was abolished at the end of the civil war by Lincoln by 13th amendments of December 1865. Slavery wasabolished but segregation remained.
Segregation - separation of black and white people and lack of rights for the black population.
In the south segregation was implemented (appliqués) by the “JimCrow laws” (1880-1890). “JC laws” separated blacks and whites in schools and the public places (schools, theaters, restaurants).
Civil rights’ movements (CRM)- is a concerted effort of 1950s-60s to gaingreater politic, economic and social equality (for the black people).
Beginning of the CRM
1st event “Supreme court decision” education of the people (1954):
That declared that public schoolsegregation was unconstitutional. After this decision black activists wanted to extend the idea to all public places.
2nd Montgomery Boykot (1955-1956):
In 1955 Roseph Parks who was a black activist:refused to give a seat to a white passenger. And after this event the black populated the bus company in Montgomery
Movements and strategies
“Freedom struggle” involved several movements anddifferent methods.
Nonviolent movements:
• 1901 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP);
• 1957 Southern Christian Leadership Conference created by Marin Luther King, afterboycott (SCLC);
August 1963: “Peaceful march”
• 1960s-1970s students Nonviolent Coordinated Committee (SNCC);

1) Favored nonviolent actions;
2) Peaceful marches;
3) Wanted integrationof the black people in the American society through 2 ways: through the right to vote, access to education.

Freedom writers: Young people travelled by the interstate buses to the south to encouragepeople to register on voting votes.
Violent movements:
• 1966 Black Panther Party included some former SNCC members, who were disillusioned by the absence of the evolution of the black people...
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