This chapter deals with pluralism a very important aspect of British life and culture. A pluralistic society (sty) is a form of society in which members of minorities are recognized has having the right to retain their specific identity to hold their own believes and to maintain their own traditions. This is associated with a tolerant due and the recognition that diversitymulticulturalism, a multi ethnic society is more positive than a closed one. This has very concrete implication in everyday life in Britain.
Britain was deeply affected by the protestant reformation in the 16th century, King Henri VIII broke away from the domination of Rome in 1534 and from then on the number of religious minority groups increased in the 17th and 18th centuries. Theygradually acquired freedom of worship. In the 2001 census, 75% of the British said they had a religion about 70% of these were Christians, only 10% of the population attends religion services regularly. Christian religion Anglican, Baptist, Presbyterian, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Quaker) = 71.6% (10% Catholic). Muslim religion = 2.7%. Hindu & Sikh religion = 1.6%. Jewish religion = 0.5%.
Anglicanismof the Church of England: The Church of England is an establish church on which the King or Queen is the head with the Archbishop of Canterbury at the head of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. There is a link between the state and the establish religion since signor bishop sit in the House of Lord as Lord spiritual. Compared with Catholicism the Church of England does not recognize the authority of thePope, Priest can married, Anglicans do not take confessions, there is no cult of saints or relics since 1994, a number of women priest have been ordained (ordiné) so in part it is a Protestant church those the liturgy is very close to Catholicism. There are different tendencies within the Church of E, some people are high church = they are closer to Catholicism whereas some of Low Church = theyare closer to Protestantism. Attendance at Sunday services is about 1 million.
In Scotland there is also a established church, it is organized on the Presbyterian model that is to say (ie) there hunt any bishops but elders of the church. Attendance at Sunday services is about 660, 000, it is proportionally greater as ... . The term free churches or nonconformist or dissenters refer to otherChristian churches which are not established.
The major free churches are the Methodist (founded in the 18th Century by John Wesley) with 350, 000 members, then the Baptist (around 140,000 members) then the United reform church (over 90,000 members) then the Salvation army (founded in the 19th by William Booth) and finally the Quakers who originated in 17th and count 17,000 members. Sometimes, peopleare referred to has being either church” meaning Church of England or Chapel meaning member of dissenting of protestant group.
Apart from the Christian denominations there is a large Jewish community in Britain it counts around 250.000 members mostly in London. Estimates of the number of Muslims, vary from 1.5 million to 2 million, most of them come from Pakistan and Bangladesh both formercolonies of the British Empire. There are over 600 mosques in Britain, the largest one of which is situated in Regent’s Park in London and London has the largest congregation of Muslims. If Muslims came mostly from Pakistan and Bangladesh there is also the impact of immigrants from other parts of the Empire and especially from India; the Hindu community is very large (evaluated between 400 and550.000person) settled mainly in London, Birmingham, Bradford and Leicester. So is the Sikh community estimated between 400.000 and 500.000 person. All these different religions coexist and had concretely changed the traditional image of Britain; it is a place where multiculturalism is guaranteed by freedom of worship as well as the possibility to set up religious schools. Catholic and Jewish schools...