Civilisation irlande et royaume uni

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Civilisation Royaume Uni et Irlande

Programme :
1) The rise and fall of the British Empire
2) The Commonwealth
3) Britain and Ireland? A “special” political relationship
4) Britain and Ireland: economic links
5) British and Irish EU memberships
6) The UK, Ireland and Structural Funds
7) Partnerships and competition in the European and global environment
8)British and Irish regional challenges in an enlarged Europe
9) Foreign exchange and Foreign Direct Investment in the UK and in Ireland
10) British and Irish company structures
11) Key Irish and British business sectors and issues.

1) The rise and fall of the British Empire
I) The great landmarks of British Empire.
1783: first steps of the building period.
Plantation ofIreland.
English settlement in North America and Caribbean.
Creation of East India Company to trade with Asia. In the XVIII century: population boom, lack of supplies, especially food. Objective of the implementation in Ireland: supply England with food. Implementation done peacefully at the beginning followed with violence when it became a colonial implementation, imposing a government and influence.Act of Union (1800): union between Ireland and England. The two Irelands merged into one entity, ruled by England. Lasted till 1920, Ireland was then separated into two parts. Northern Ireland (6 counties) and South Ireland, a free state of 20 counties.
1949: Full fledge Republic.
England built a durable economic relationship with Asia.
Second British Empire: from 1783 to 1815.
Period ofstruggle and competition. Loss of 13 colonies which became the United States. That was a blow for England.
Followed by a period of Britain Imperial Century (1815-1940).
Britain defeated Napoleon, great power among other countries, strengthened the country. Russia was the main competitor left.
Colonies, expansions brought more territories and people.
Pax Britannica: period of peace in Europe,England controlled the sea routes, begun in 1815 with Waterloo.
Between the two wars, threat for the country because of the alliances made in the world.
1919: Treaty of Versailles, was beneficial for the country: more territories and people.
Starting 1944-45: sings of a crumbling empire. Ireland suffered major struggles, particularly among the nationalists. Shake in England’s confidence.
1926Conference: Balfour declaration. Declared the autonomous communities, dependence of the dominions.
Dismantling of the British Empire started in 1944. First country to gain independence was India.
1947: India split in two parts: Pakistan and India (religious divide). + Burma and Sri Lanka.
1955: Sudan.
1957: Malaya
1960: Cyprus
1961/ 1962: Jamaica and Trinidad.
1963: Singapore, Sarawak, NorthBorneo, Malaysia.
1966: los Barbados.
1968: all British colonies in Africa except for South Rhodesia.
1982: Canada Act ended the need for British involvement in Canada’s government.
1986: Australia and New Zealand followed Canada: real independence.
1997: end of the 1909 authority in Honk Kong.

II) Economic history:
XVII: economy based on sea trade.
Complementary between Ireland andEngland. Food in exchange of technology.
Industrial period. England had to sell products abroad, hence the expansion. London became a major trade and financial center. Britain used a very protectionist system. Increased major export.
Shift to the free trade ideology. Need to participate in the world trade.
Britain marked by imperialist theories. Felt the empire was threatened, need ofprotection. Debate between industrialists who saw in a reserved economy security with an internal market and those who saw the world evolving and feared England would be left alone.
Lots of reaction in Britain nowadays and also in former colonies are conditioned by their history.

2) The Commonwealth.
Voluntary association of 53 sovereign states (most of them are former British colonies).
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