This literature review is aimed to talk about shoplifting, and understand what drive people to shoplift. Some authors have found that the retail environment influences people to shoplift, we will analyse this point in order to understand how and why. Also, thanks to the theory of Bonoma, and the theory of planned behaviour theory we will try to understand what people’s motivations toshoplift are. The principal answer we are looking for is to understand if people are mainly motivated by economic hardship or not.
Actual situation and Introduction
“As a result, shoplifting has become one of the most prevalent crimes in the U.S., averaging about 550,000 incidents per day resulting in more than $13 billion worth of goods being stolen from retailers each year. That is morethan $35 million in losses per day” (Peter Berlin, NASP). “More than 3.5 million people have admitted shoplifting in the past five years, according to new research. “ (BBC Website). Thank to the two previous sentences, we have seen the economic impact of shoplifting. This is a very important phenomenon because it has a cost for people and for the society as well. Finally the society sentencesshoplifting. The question we can ask then, is if shoplifting is consider a crime? And if shoplifters have to go to jail to have stolen? And about young people who shoplift? “There are many forms of business crimes.” (Booth, 2008: 127). In his article, Booth (2008) is treating about business crimes, and how we should define and perceive various sort of those. “If the culprit cannot gain from theoffense, a simple monetary remedy is sufficient to deter bad behaviour” (Booth, 2008: 128). Booth (2008) is saying that if we consider a business crime as a bad behaviour, just a financial pain can be applied. So if we take it into consideration what Booth said, we probably have to revise our perception of shoplifting: Do we have to condemn a pain to people who shoplift even if we donot know their real motivation? And if they have psychological problem that caused shoplifting, are they condemnable?
Thus, we should understand what drive people to shoplift in order to have an opinion about their behaviour, to know if they are motivated by the economic hardship or other temptation. This is the aim of this literature review, throughout some authors’ point of view andresearch; we will try to debate on that.
So, first, we will focus our research on the influence of the retail environment on shoplifting. Then, the theory of Bonoma which have been applied to the shoplifting will be exposed in order to throw light on the subject. Michelle Tonglet, who has dressed a very interesting research about Shoplifting, uses the theory of planned behaviour. We will work on itas well. And finally, we will focus on Peter Berlin, director of the NASP, which give his opinion about why people do people shoplift?
“Discuss whether the actions of consumers who engage in behaviour which could be termed dubious, criminal, deceptive or fraudulent are primarily motivated by saving money.”
How the retail environment can influence shoplifting?
In his article “DeviantConsumer Behaviour: a different view” (1979), Mills and Bonoma are introducing that the retail image and environment can influence people to shoplift. The basic marketing point of view that we have with retail is that “stores transmit social communications to their customers through their physical and marketing image.” (Mills M. et al, 1979). Store retails are using strategic communications in orderto show to their customers that they offer them a good deal, or to give them a good image of the store. But the problem stilled there, shoplifters were there and were stealing. In order to find an explication to this continuous fact, Mills and Bonoma chose to apply the power-context interaction theory of Bonoma (1976) to the shoplifting problem to study if there is a relation between the retail...