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We would all like to cure society of violent behaviour with something akin to vaccine to prevent its spread and an antibiotic to cure what we already face. But the medical analogy gives undue weightto the biological basis of the behaviour. ‘We know what causes violence in our society: poverty, discrimination, the failure of our educational system,’ says Paul Billings, a clinical geneticist atStanford.

“It’s not the genes that cause violence in our society. It’s our social system.” We need better education, nutrition, and intervention in dysfunctional homes and in the lives of abusedchildren, perhaps to the point of removing them from the control of their incompetent parents. But such responses would be expensive and socially controversial. That we are searching, instead, for easyanswers in the laboratory is a sign of the times.

a (i) Explain fully the meaning of ‘The proliferation of genetic explanations for violence’{2}

(ii) In about 50 words of your own, give the reasons for the proliferation {3}
b) What theoriesare there in the passage that contradict the view that biology is destiny? Answer in about 75 of your own words. {4}

c) In about 50 words of your own,explain why the author refers to monkeys in the article. {3}

(i) Explain in a single word or a short phrase the meaning of six of the following words as they are used inthe passage:
1. random (line)
2. morbid (line)
3. sensitive (line)
4. impulsive (line)
5. disparate (line)
6. stigmatizing (line)
7. exculpate (line)
8. akin (line){6}
(ii) Use the six words that you have chosen in six separate sentences to illustrate their meanings as used in the passage. Your sentences should not deal with the subject matter...
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