Murderers, thieves, drug dealers… Why these people move from honest persons to criminals? Jack the Ripper, Ed Gein, Charles Manson… we all know their names, they are famous because of the atrocity of their crime, they were even sometimes nicknamed “Devil” but when we look at their face, they just look like you and me. What makes those people become so dangerous for thesociety?
There are three main reasons for committing crime, the first is the natural cause which has been largely developed by the Italian thinker Cesar Lombroso, the second is the socio-economical cause and last one is the culture.
The first cause of crime which has been developed by criminologists* was the biologic (or natural) cause. This biological cause can understand on the genetic side orpsychological side.
The famous Italian criminologist Cesar Lombroso had made a huge quantity of researches to prove the genetic cause of criminality. Lombroso describes the typical shape of a criminal man. He also compares the heredity of crime to the heredity of alcoholism or mental disease (Lombroso, The Criminal Man, 1887, p 115). The Italian author went further by studying the body ofcriminals part by part. He claims that “Generally the jaw is more developed on criminals; on them it can weight 84g, while on crazy people the average weight is 78g, and on honest people it is 80g” (Lombroso, The Criminal Man, 1887, p 134). On more recent studies, some scientists found that some people are naturally more able to commit crime than others. Usually men between 15 and 25 years old commitmore crime than the rest of the population and this because of hormones.
*A criminologist is a person who studies criminology, which is the science that studies the crime and the behaviors of criminals.
The second point of the natural cause is the psychological side. The human behaviors can be affected by psychological illnesses such as schizophrenia. The persons who suffer from this kind ofdisease can’t control themselves, therefore they don’t know the limit between an acceptable behavior and an unacceptable one. Sometimes a psychologically sick person can kill in the name of love. Even if it’s hard for us to understand it, the illness can explain it. This cause is very important and could be discussed more deeply because there is a vast quantity of different illness but it’s not thetopic of this essay. To conclude this point I would say that it can’t be the main cause of criminality because if it was only a question of illness, we could be able to eradicate crime by curing those diseases.
At last, I will call my final point: the natural human way of thinking. Let me explain. In my opinion, human being always chooses the easiest road. Why working when you can steal whatyou need? Why arguing with somebody when you can just kill him? Even if, the society tries to teach people values like respect but some people choose the crime as a solution to solve their problems and this is totally natural. I don’t blame them because we are all a little bit criminal in this way. Who has never download songs or movies instead of buying them? If we think more about this naturalcause we will realize that we are more criminal that what we thought.
As has been said, the biological cause can be very powerful in the explanation of the existence of crime but it’s also very discussed.
Another major cause of crime can be defined as social and economical. The social view refers to the social institutions as school, family or government but also to the environment whereasthe economical view refers to the question of money.
According to the sociologist Emile Durkheim the crime is “closely connected to the conditions of life in collectivity” (Durkheim, The crime, normal phenomenon, 1894, p 5). The society creates norms and limits. Those limits are supposed to be universally accepted but they are not. Some persons feel oppressed by these norms and the want to rebel...