Table of Content
Table of Content 2
1.1 The tools to identify the cultural differences: 4
2. Consumer Behaviour 8
3. How does culture influence advertising? 17
3.1 Language 18
3.2 Religion 18
3.3 Cultural Influence analysed through Hofstede's dimensions 19
3.4 Culture Influence through Trompenaars dimensions 21
4. GlobalBranding 22
4.1 Global branding 25
4.2 Product Mix 26
4.3 Attachment of global brand to their countries of origin 27
4.4 Local brand preferences 28
5. Implementing Global Strategies: 28
5.1 Becoming a global organization 29
5.2 Importance of Global Environment 29
5.3 Global brand strategies: 30
5.4 Forms of Global communication/advertising strategies: 31
6. Good and Bad examples ofCross cultural marketing 32
6.1 Hofstede’s Dimensions 33
7. Summary 36
With the internationalization, increasingly companies tend to aspire becoming global brands and expanding their markets. So they search for methods for identifying the differences between their home market and the host markets, in order for companies to be able to develop strategies on how to expandto global companies.
Indeed, international advertising professionals want to understand the impact of cultural differences to be efficient in their advertising. For a better understanding of the consequences of culture on advertising, professionals and searchers have evolved tools over the past 25 years.
These tools permit a classification of the differences in order to understand them.Indeed, classification of cultures is necessary to understand differences in cross-cultural consumer behaviour and to differentiate advertising strategies across countries. Classifying cultures on dimensions has proved to be the most constructive method. It helps in vocalizing and labelling cultural differences and similarities.
For instance, the difference between high and low-contextcommunication cultures helps us understand why Japanese and American advertising styles are so different, why Japanese prefer indirect verbal communication and symbolism while Americans favour a direct and textual approach in communication.
Hofstede’s model proves to be very useful for comparing cultures. This model permits explaining the variety of values and motives used in advertising across cultures.It is als applicable for analyzing the consumer behaviour across different cultures. Finally, it is revealed to be an important tool for companies that want to develop global advertising strategies.
So the question at hand is, how can companies identify similarities and differences between their targeted markets and use their findings efficiently in their marketing in order to become a globalbrand?
1.1 The tools to identify the cultural differences:
Cultural differences can be studied, described, classified, and compared in a variety of ways. First, we can look at the institutions that societies have created. Second, we can observe and compare behaviour. Third, we can ask people what they think and collect their answers in questionnaires. All these tools measure beliefs,behaviour, habits or values. Thus, cultures can be described according to descriptive characteristics or classified into value categories or dimensions of national culture.
Gannon has worked on the descriptive characteristics. He describes cultures by identifying metaphors that members of given societies view as very important. He focuses on the expressions of culture as religion, familystructure, leisure, sports, social class, and more. He provides a description of cultures according to metaphors (i.e. the Italian opera, French wine, the Russian ballet, Irish conversations or American football). These metaphors provide good insight into expressions of culture, but they are less useful for analyzing and comparing cultures and understanding consumer behaviour across cultures....