Please don't hold yourself back to interrupt me if you have any questions or if there are something you don't understand.
So, that concludes the introduction.To begin with the history of the Death Penalty, I think it's important to wonder ''what is the purpose of the death penalty'' ?
It was to stop the ''Eye for an eye'' which was used in most primitive society. At that time, the arbitration system between families was no-existent.It just means people take the law into their own hands. So, then one person was killed by someone, the victim's familykilled someone of the other family... , I guess it's obvious to see that in this way there was no escape to get away of the vicious circle. That phenomenon has been called ''vendetta''. In order to stop it, the death penalty was created. Because it was the justice which dispense the sentence, the cycle coud stop. Although the person offered for execution did not have to be the originalperpetrator. So, I assume it was just a way to ease the victim's family.
So, now, I'm going to give you an overview of the history of the capital punishment.
First, we begin with the place of the Death Penalty in the Ancient Rome.
a) Ancient Rome
In the Ancient Rome, the use of the death penalty had three purposes.
In First to protect the society.
Next, to satisfy the sufferer.
And eventuallyto dissuade the potential criminals.
Somehow, we could say it's almost the same as nowadays.
As you probably know in Ancient Rome, the Capital Punishment was mainly used for the foreign people who wasn't considerated by the roman like citizen.
As for roman people, it was hardly used. They prefered to condemn them to exil or torture.
That's all I wanted to say for Ancient Rome. Now, weare going to adress the Middle Ages.
B) Middle Ages
In the Middle Ages, the christian church saw its influence dramatically increased. This last one was
more or less reluctant to the capital punishment because the death sentence was against the redemption. That's why at the beginning of the Middle Ages they prefered the wergild (which means ''man price'') to death penalty. The culprit hadto give an amount of money to the victim's family and after that the case was closed.
At the end of the Middle Ages, the number of people condemn to Capital Punishment increased because the monarch wanted to impose his authority.
Well, now I have finished to talk about the place of the Death Penality in ancient society, I would like to take a look at the main different methods of the executionof the death sentence.
C) Methods of the execution of the death sentence
Well, before to talk about the Guillotine, I would like to give you a short introduction of the main different methods of the execution of the death sentence.
Decapitation by sword which was sometimes considered like the "honourable" way to die for an aristocrat and in England it was considered a privilege ofnoblemen to be beheaded.
Hanging which was for the thief.
Exectution by burning which was a method of punishment for crimes such as treason, heresy and witchcraft.
The breaking wheel which was a cruel torment as well as a great dishonor. The condemned was lashed to the wheel and beaten with a club or iron cudgel, with the gaps in the wheel allowing the cudgel to break through.
Dismembermentis the act of cutting, tearing, pulling, wrenching or otherwise removing, the limbs of a living thing by tying a person's limbs to a chain or other constraint, then attaching the restraint to four separate movable entities (usually horses) and moving them in opposite directions.
So, now we come to the Guillotine.
First of all, the Guillotine consists of a tall upright frame...