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Ihecs – Sarah Pierrequin – Master 1 – Advertising

1.a) Bibliographical information

LINDSTROM Martin, 2008
Buyology - How Everything We Believe About Why We Buy is Wrong, Random House Business Books, London, 240p.
b) Blurb
If you wonder what drives you when you buy something or why you are attracted by a particular brand or product over another, this bookhas been wrote for you. Nowadays advertising is – almost – everywhere. There is a huge choice of brands and products, and people’s buying decisions might often seem to be irrational. With the fRMI study he and other specialists have conducted, Martin Lindstrom, one of the world’s top branding gurus, is able to assert that neuromarketing is the tool that will help you to discover what – unconscious– phenomenon is going on in your brain when you buy something.
2.Purpose of the book
Lindstrom intends to make people understand what, in their subconscious, drives their purchasing decisions. According to him, traditional research methods don’t work anymore to define why people are attracted by a particular brand. He predicts that neuromarketing will be soon a precious key for companies tounderstand consumers’ behavior. Moreover it will also help consumers not to fall into the net of many unscrupulous advertisers.
3.Gist of the content
Thanks to fMRI, neuroscientists can see which specific areas in the brain are activated when somebody is seeing a picture, watching a video, or listening to a sound. It shows how marketing messages are perceived by the brain and how ourunconscious mind can control our behavior.
Our emotions influence every buying decision we make. The more people are stressed or frightened, the more irrationally they tend to behave. A brand has more chance to sell its products successfully if it engages people emotionally.

Product placement
A brand that is integrated into the narrative of a program will be remembered more easily than abrand that doesn’t play a fundamental part of the storyline. It appears that products that play such a part in a program increase our memory of the products and weaken our aptitude to remember the other brands.
Mirror neurons and dopamine
These are neurons that fire in somebody’s brain when this person is performing an action as well as when this same person is watching someone else in action.These are responsible for why we often unconsciously imitate other people’s behavior, and for human empathy. Often, they work in tandem with dopamine, which plays a role in driving our purchasing decisions. It appears that shopping makes people happier in the short term. This happiness can be attributed to dopamine which gives people a sensation of pleasure and well-being.
Subliminal messaging:tobacco advertising
Logo-free images associated with smoking, like red sunsets (which refers to Marlboro) or a camel in a desert (Camel) do more in encouraging people to smoke than the logos or the images of the cigarette packs themselves.
Superstitions and rituals
Rituals help people form emotional connections with brands and products. These are not rational actions. The more stressful the worldbecomes the more we need to control our lives. And the more we feel anxious and uncertain, the more we adopt superstitious behavior. Buying a product which is familiar to them gives people the impression to have more control on their lives.
It appears that the most successful brands are those that have the more things in common with religion. People’s reactions when they’re exposedto powerful brands are almost the same that the emotions people have when they see religious symbols.
Somatic markers
A somatic marker is a shortcut in our brains. The more we have somatic markers, the more buying decisions we’re able to make. Without them, we wouldn’t be able to make any decisions. Somatic markers are based on past experiences of reward and punishment. These can be...
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