The British Constitution & the British Monarchy. CD2.
To convey: traduite (au sens de communiquer: transmettre)
To set up : établir, ériger
To embody : incarner (embodiment)
To draft: rédiger
Landmark: point de repère
To lay down: établir qq chose par écrit
Tax : impôt (taxation)
Summon : convoquer
Trial : procès (to trial: juger une affaire dans un tribunal)Bill : projet de loi
As a result of : en conséquence de
To be entitled to : avoir droit à
To implement: appliquer [une règle]
To regulate : reglementer (regulation : un reglement/reglementation)
Advise : des conseils. Give me some advise.
To appoint: nommer (appointment)
Give rise to: donner lieu à
Press release: communiqué de presse
To question: remettre encause
I. The British Constitution
British English Constitutional rules in perspective.
There is no such thing as a British Constitution. There is rather an English constitution which was imposed on Wales, Scotland and Ireland when they joined England. More appropriate to refer to a set of constitutional rules rather than constitution (American or French style).
II/ An unwritten
Englishconstitution: unwritten, unentrenched, flexible. As a result, it is said to be flexible (as opposed to French or American which are rigid). EC is unwritten. Is a tricky word: means uncodified—never put into one single all inclusive code. Not contained in one single document.
Two main categories of constitutional rules exist:
1. Written down in acts
2. Others without ever been established informal written document.
No code regrouping all the existing constitutional rules has ever been published. Napoleon looked down on England as a nation of shopkeepers. Lack of codification is specific to England. Legal rules have never been codified either, English law is judges “made law” (droit d'origine jurisprudentiel.)
The EC is unentrenched: trench—protection. Soldiers used to dig trenchesto protect themselves from the ennemy. To entrench, to protect. Unentrenched: to be unprotected. Not protected: no superior value and no constitutional council (France) or the Supreme Court (USA) to check, control that legislation voted by parlment conforms to the constitution. So in England constitutional laws have the same value as ordinary laws. Consequence (advantage): English constitutionalrules are easy to modify. A new act of parliament may set up a new constitutional rule, or, a new practice may appear to bring a solution when a constitutionaly difficult or unheard of situation arises. That is why the EC is said to be flexible.
III/ The same co
The EC: Very old. Basically England has had only one C whose first rules where established in a very old and very important documentin 1215 and which has continuously involved over the centuries in order to adapt to new political circonstancies. To that extent the EC is very different from the French constitution(s).
The first French constitution resulted from popular revolt against monarchy and embodied rejection of absolute gvt by the king. Most other constitutions Frances had have resulted from the wish to set up a newpolitical regim quiet distinct from the previous one. Quiet similarly, the American C was drafted after the thirteen colonies of America had declared themselves independent from England and clearly set up a form of gvt very different from the English one that said … on them during the colony all years. Nothing of the sort in England. England was a monarchy in 1215 and it is still a monarchy today.But for absolute the monarchy became constitutional and democracy progressively “setting”.
IV/ Magna Carta, 1215.
MC in 1215 was the founding stone of EC rules. Most of the precise details of the organisation of the state laid down that document are out dated. MG contains all the main principles of a democratic gvt. MC: is a latin expression (the great Charta). Was granted by King John who...