Energie

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  • Publié le : 4 octobre 2010
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Renewable energy
www.renewableenergy.no

Renewable energy
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PREFACE
Renewable energy has been an important political topic for a long time. 20-30 years ago there was an increasing realization that the earth’s resources are limited and that the world’s dependency on fossil fuel must be reduced. Today, climate problems are on the summitof the international political agenda. Climate change created by humans around the globe is the largest challenge humanity is currently faced with. EU and many national authorities have therefore decided to focus on a re-adjustment toward more environmentally friendly energy production and consumption. Norwegian authorities have set a target of 30 TWh of new electricity production, heat fromrenewable sources of energy and through energy efficiency by 2016 over the 2001 level. The purpose of this compendium is to present a concise overview of the progress of technology, economy and market in relation to renewable energy. The publication will also present examples of Norwegian companies that deliver relevant technology. The compilation of the information for this publication has beencarried out by the consultancy company SWECO Grøner in close cooperation with the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Enova, The Norwegian Research Council and Innovation Norway, which also have financed the publication. The booklet has been quality assured by a number of experts. In addition, the Center for Renewable Energy, which is a cooperation between The Norwegian University ofScience and Technology (NTNU), Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) and The Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at NTNU (SINTEF), has contributed with comments and suggestions. 22 March 2007 ………………. Marit L. Fossdal Energy director The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate ………………. Eli Arnstad Managing director Enova ………………. ………………. Kirsten Broch Mathiesen Bjørn EriksenDirector for Strategic Priorities Director of The Norwegian Research department Council Innovation Norway



Renewable energy

1 Introduction 2 Solar energy 3 Bioenergy 4 Windpower 5 Hydropower 6 Ocean energy 7 Geothermal energy 8 Technologies for renewable energy

6 10 28 46 58 70 82 92

Renewable energy



1. INTRODUCTION
All reliable examinations andanalyses the last thirty years point in the same direction: The use of fossil fuels in the transport sector and the energy provision should not continue like today. The increase in greenhouse gas emissions in the same time period also gives rise to concern. In 1987, the international Brundtland Commission, led by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway at the time, presented the report “Ourcommon future”, the first overall and all-inclusive political analysis of the international environmental challenges. The concept “sustainable development” was launched here among other things. The report recommends the countries to change the energy consumption and to base their welfare on a sustainable development. In 1997, the Kyoto protocol was established on the basis of the Kyoto agreement.This means that that the global emission of greenhouse gases will be reduced by 5.2 per cent in relation to the 1990-level within 2012. Norway is among the countries that have ratified the agreement that came into force on February 16th 2005. In this agreement, we were required not to increase the greenhouse gas emissions by more than one per cent compared to our 1990-level. In 2005, emissions hadhowever increased by eight per cent in relation to 1990. The autumn of 2006, former Chief Economist in the World Bank, Sir Nicholas Stern, presented the report “The Stern Review”. It painted a gloomy picture of the situation if the international community doesn’t manage to halt the increase of greenhouse gas emissions. The report determines that this development must be turned now, and that the...
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