English and their currency

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I/History of these currencies

1) The pound sterling
2) The euro

II/Economic Policy in England

1) The views of various political parties
2) The views of the English citizen

III/ The crisis

1) The pounds sterling

2)The euro

IV/ Interview of Mr Anderson


I/History of these currencies

1) The pound sterling

Currency Name:Pound Sterling
Currency Symbol :£

Denominations : Coins :
1 penny or 1/100 pound
2 pence or 1/50 pound
5 pence or 1/20 pound
10 pence or 1/10 pound
20 pence or 1/5 pound
50 pence or 1/2 pound
1 pound
2 pounds

Banknotes :
5 pounds
10 pounds
20 pounds
50 pounds

The origins of sterling lie in the reign of King Offa of Mercia, (757 - 796) who introduced the silver penny.Created 13 centuries ago, the pound sterling is one of the oldest currencies still in circulation. It became, over time, a veritable institution, a symbol for the Crown and the standard of the City of London.
The value of the pound sterling initially corresponded to the mass of one pound of pure silver metal.

2) The euro

Currency Name :Euro
Currency Symbol :€

Denominations : Coins :
1cent or 1/100 euro
2 cents or 1/50 euro
5 cents or 1/20 euro
10 cents or 1/10 euro
20 cents or 1/5 euro
50 cents or 1/2 euro
1 euro
2 euro

Banknotes :
5 euro
10 euro
20 euro
50 euro
100 euro
200 euro
500 euro
(Though €500, €200 are not issued in all countries)

The euro was launched on 1 January 1999 as an electronic currency and became legal tender on 1 January 2002, butattempts to create a single currency go back 20 years. This chart shows the value of the euro (before 1999 as a basket of the 11 legacy currencies) against the US dollar.
On 1 January 2002, the euro replaced the old national currencies. As the chart shows, European currencies have always fluctuated against the dollar, even as debates have raged about the euro.
Twelve of the 15 EU countries (Germany,France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Finland, Greece and Ireland) are members of the Eurozone.

The Eurozone in 2008:

       EU Eurozone (16)   
       EU states obliged to join the Eurozone (9)    
       EU state with an opt-out on Eurozone participation (1 - UK)  
       EU state planning to hold a referendum on the euro (1 - Denmark)       States outside the EU with issuing rights (3)      
       Other non-EU users (4)

II/Economic Policy in England

1) The views of various political parties

Conservative Party:
Backs the EU but wants a halt to further political integration and return of key law making powers to nation states. Opposes the Lisbon Treaty and says it will hold a referendum on it if elected to powerbefore it comes into force.

Labour Party:
Stresses importance of British membership of EU when it comes to big transnational issues such as climate change and security. But also pledges to ensure EU delivers for British people on jobs, crime and prosperity. Fully backs and promotes the Lisbon Treaty.

Liberal Party:
Traditionally the most pro-European of the big threeparties. Nick Clegg has urged Britain to "stand tall" and play its full part in the EU, which he says has a vital role on big issues such as climate change and security. Backs the Lisbon Treaty but wants a referendum on Britain's continued EU membership with aim of highlighting positives of membership.

Green Party:
Pushing economic rescue plan, alongside traditional emphasis on theenvironment. Pro-European but also want democratic reform and clean-up of EU and referendum on Lisbon Treaty. Promising "positive and clean" alternative to big parties.

UK Independence Party:
Withdraw from the EU. Establish trading relations with former European partners. End mass immigration.

Libertas Party:
First pan-European political party. Wants sweeping democratic reform of...