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volume 4 | issue 2 | spring 2009

A quarterly journal published by MIT Press

TECHNOLOGY | GOVERNANCE | GLOBALIZATION

innovations
in a Turbulent World

Resilience

Lead Essays

Peter Blom The Upside of the Downturn Reginald Van Lee et al. Megacommunities
Cases Authored by Innovators

Amazon Conservation Team: Changing the Landscape of Power Mark J. Plotkin
commentary by NorkaRuiz Bravo

Kiva at Four Matt Flannery
commentary by Sam Daley-Harris Analytic and Policy Articles Ignacio Mas The Economics of Branchless Banking Ignacio Mas and Olga Morawczynski Designing Mobile Transfer Services Steven Horwitz Best Responders Peter Dombrowski and Eugene Gholz Identifying Disruptive Innovation Dane Stangler Creative Discovery Erwann O. Michel-Kerjan and Debra K. Decker Insureto Assure
ENTREPRENEURIAL SOLUTIONS TO GLOBAL CHALLENGES

TECHNOLOGY | GOVERNANCE | GLOBALIZATION
Lead Essays 3 The Upside of the Downturn: How Sustainable Banking Can Deliver a Better Future Peter Blom Collective Leadership and Overlapping Vital Interests: The Unrealized Power of Megacommunities Reginald Van Lee, Mark J. Gerencser, Chris Kelly, and Robin Portman

innovations
7 13 27 31 51Changing the Landscape of Power Mark J. Plotkin Case discussion: Amazon Conservation Team Norka Ruiz Bravo Kiva at Four Matt Flannery Case discussion: Kiva Sam Daley-Harris

Cases Authored by Innovators

Analysis 57 77 93 The Economics of Branchless Banking Ignacio Mas Designing Mobile Money Services: Lessons from M-PESA Ignacio Mas and Olga Morawczynski Best Responders: Post-KatrinaInnovation and Improvisation by Wal-Mart and the U.S. Coast Guard Steven Horwitz Identifying Disruptive Innovation: Innovation Theory and the Defense Industry Peter Dombrowski and Eugene Gholz

101

volume 4 | issue 2 | spring 2009

Perspectives on Policy 119 Creative Discovery: Reconsidering the Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and Innovation Dane Stangler Insure to Assure: A New Paradigm forNuclear Nonproliferation and International Security Erwann O. Michel-Kerjan and Debra K. Decker

139

Organization of the Journal
Each issue of Innovations consists of four sections: 1. Lead essay. An authoritative figure addresses an issue relating to innovation, emphasizing interactions between technology and governance in a global context. 2. Cases authored by innovators. Case narrativesof innovations are authored either by, or in collaboration with, the innovators themselves. Each includes discussion of motivations, challenges, strategies, outcomes, and unintended consequences. Following each case narrative, we present commentary by an academic discussant. The discussant highlights the aspects of the innovation that are analytically most interesting, have the most significantimplications for policy, and/or best illustrate reciprocal relationships between technology and governance. 3. Analysis. Accessible, policy-relevant research articles emphasize links between practice and policy—alternately, micro and macro scales of analysis. The development of meaningful indicators of the impact of innovations is an area of editorial emphasis. 4. Perspectives on policy. Analyses ofinnovations by large scale public actors—national governments and transnational organizations—address both success and failure of policy, informed by both empirical evidence and the experience of policy innovators. The development of improved modes of governance to facilitate and support innovations is an area of editorial focus.

mitpressjournals.org/innovations innovationsjournal.net Ignacio Mas

The Economics of Branchless Banking
If you are a smallholder with all your income concentrated in a particular season; if you are a day laborer who is not sure what employment opportunities there may be tomorrow; if you are a street hawker making $2 a day and know you will have to come up with $20 to send your children to school in September; if you are the family’s breadwinner but...
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