Evolution of work's world

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Operation Management


I. Cost focus
* Early concepts 1776-1880
* Scientific management era 1880-1910
* Mass product area 1910-1980

II. Quality Focus
* Lean production Era 1980-1995

III. Customization Focus
* Mass Customization Focus 1995-2008

New challengesIntroduction

The history of civilizations reflects the evolution of organizations. Language is the first revolution that has enabled humans to organize. Dice prehistoric men learn to join forces to serve their common cause. Hunting, fishing, construction provide better results when they are operated as a group, these developments are the results of reflections and men begin to organize toachieve common goals, impossible alone.
Religion will have a considerable impact on the organization of certain civilizations. The Mayans, Egyptians are striking examples. To lead these organizations, it is essential to establish a hierarchy.
Representatives of the order will serve to enforce the desired scholars, will make the change, and other leaders, kings, presidents are the highestrepresentatives. The differences between these civilizations will be other functions of religion, way of thinking, culture, but also the personality of the representative of each people. In the Roman Empire, the gods and the desire to expand the empire were key elements of the organization.
Over time, people are increasingly large, complex organization is still, it is approached from many criteria,political, economic, military, social…
Companies are subject to the same rules: the organization is essential to achieve good results, to advance. This organization is complex also increasingly with globalization, modern means of communication. The industry has undergone great changes in terms of organization these last two centuries. Taylor was a revolution in the production method. Daily companies mustimprove their organization to remain competitive and innovative. Human resources take an important role in this mission for the perfect place good men to the right place. The engineers must improve production processes.
We will observe in particular the world of work.
How Operation Management adapts to the changing world of work?

I. Cost focus

* Early concepts 1776-1880
Laborsspecialization (Adam Smith)
The division of labor is an increasingly specialized division of the production process. Each worker can become a specialist in his particular subtask. This process increases the effectiveness of his work, his productivity.

Adam Smith took the separation of work and specialization as an essential subject in Wealth Of Nations (he used from Diderot’s Encyclopedia). Inthe first sentence of an investigation into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776), Adam Smith thinks the spirit of industrialism by formative that division of labor represents a qualitative increase in productivity. On the other hand, in another chapter of the same book Smith criticizes the division of labor. Indeed, the division of labor has not only advantages. Smith notes that itcan have disastrous effects on intelligence workers. They are morons by the repetition of simple gestures which are more and more simple. He hopes the state could do something against it, perhaps to establish an education system.
Smith believes the massive augment in productivity obtainable from technical development are possible since physical capital and human are coordinated, habitually in agroup.
Eventually, the labors specialization is an excellent thing to reduce the product cost. Adam Smith is the first who really start the beginning of cost focus period.

Standardized Parts (Eli Whitney)
Standardized Parts is based on the same components that we can replacement one for another. It’s principally imperative in manufacturing. With accuracy equipment, huge numbers of the same...
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