Fall of the tsar

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Eloïse Biollu 1S2 19 /01/2011

Account for the fall of the Tsar in 1917

For quite some time, Russia has known opposition against the Tsar until his fall in March 1917. Since 1905 and its several revolutions, the Tsar has been weakened. Indeed, since what we call Bloody Sunday and itsmassacre, the Tsar’s image has been damaged, but became better when he introduced a new government with the Dumas and new laws. Unfortunately, fighting in the Great War led him directly to his collapse. His fall was therefore predicted by long-term causes but also by short-term causes.

The Tsar’s fall started with a long-term cause, at the begging of the century in 1904 when he decided tomake war with the Japanese. But, the cost of the war was so high that there was not enough money for goods and as a result, it caused food shortages and raising prices. The war turned out as a nightmare for Russia who has been severely defeated by a small, less powerful country such as Japan. Because of his defeat, there was pressure on government for new reforms and was dissatisfaction with it.Tension started to build up as months passes. Indeed, the 22 of January in 1905, known as Bloody Sunday, was a turning point for the Tsar’s image because even though the Tsar was not to blame personally for the shootings, he was to be blamed for having been unsympathetic and uncaring to his people, not listening to their needs and protests because he was the one who sent the troops. Therefore, hecontributed indirectly to it. The 1905 revolution immediately followed Bloody Sunday and was, as well as Bloody Sunday and the Japan-Russian War, a long-term cause. It took several months to put-down the several strikes that had been spread out into the whole country, including the countryside and, in order to calm the people, the Tsar had to use, again, force by sending his army.
After theseseveral revolutions, few things changed because the Tsar was lacking of control of his country. Later, in October, the Duma, a representative assembly, has been introduced in order to represent people’s view and interests as well as other promises such as civil rights, the end of the press censorship or the right to form political parties.
Many Russians took the Tsar’s side because they were afraidof knowing unrest and violence again and the Tsar had given them what they had wanted. By giving his army its pay and improving their condition, he made sure they stayed loyal. But, the Tsar was unprepared to make the new government as he was weak and didn’t want to abandon the autocracy.
The Tsar had difficulties in controlling the peasantry who was often on strike because they were stillmainly poor and wanted their own land.
He, however, managed to keep his promised and the October manifesto was set up. But, as months passed, the Duma was often dissolved by the Tsar for having too much power, giving them each time less power until they were almost incapable of doing anything. As a result, the Tsar was distrusted for not keeping his promises, which had a bad impact on his image.The Great War, WWI, made things worse and played a major role in the fall of the Tsar. Indeed, Russia was less prepared than any other country because there were no reserve officers, artillery was out of date, communication and coordination problems were abounded (indeed, a few railway lines ran the north to the south and, as a result, there was a few communication between the different bases,camps), there was a lack of soldiers and moreover, there was not enough fuel for the aircraft. As a consequence, more than a thousand soldiers did only for war because due to Russia’s poverty, men only applied in order to get their vodka and meat every day.
First of all, there were military failures, which was a disaster. Firstly, there was a lack of modern warfare because there wasn’t enough...