O s c a r F o n t a i n e • L é o C a i l l a r t • Vi c t o r B e r c u • A l e x a n d r e F a r h a t
Table of Contents
Introduction! Regional Outlook!
Europe! Western and central Asia! Africa! South America and Caribbean! Asia and Paciﬁc! North America!
2 3 3 6 7 10 14 17 20
! ! Forestryis the art and science of managing forests, tree plantations, and related natural resources. The main goal of forestry is to create and implement systems that allow forests to continue a sustainable continuation of environmental supplies and services. The challenge of forestry is to create systems that are socially accepted while sustaining the resource and any other other resources that might beaffected. Silviculture, a related science, involves the growing and tending of trees and forests. Modern forestry generally concerns itself with: assisting forests to provide timber as raw material for wood products; wildlife habitat; natural water quality management; recreation; landscape and community protection; employment; aesthetically appealing landscapes; biodiversity management; watershedmanagement; erosion control; and a 'sink' for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the biosphere, and forestry has emerged as a vital ﬁeld of science, applied art, and technology. So I will present you an outlook of the world by continent.
Europe is consisting of 48 countries, accounts forabout 17 percent of global land area but has onequarter of the world’s forest resources, approximately 1 billion hectares, of which 81 percent is in the Russian
Federation. The situation Despite differences among countries, Europe as a whole is characterized by relative economic stability and high income. High income is reﬂected in relatively high consumption of forest products and anincreasing demand for a broader range of forest-derived goods and services, with a strong emphasis on quality. The enlargement of the European Union and the growing role of the European Parliament in developing common strategies in critical areas have fostered political and institutional strengthening for many countries in the region. Forestry is a relatively minor economic activity in most Europeancountries, hence the impact of policies in other sectors (agriculture, energy, industry, environment and trade) on the forest sector, or the contribution that the forest sector could make to the others, is not always taken into consideration. The share of agriculture and forestry in the R&D budget is also low, these ﬁelds beneﬁt from technology developments in other sectors, especially in terms ofimproving industry practices and enhancing labour productivity. Remote sensing, information and communications technology and improved processing technologies have all beneﬁted the forest sector. Future technological changes in the forest sector will be driven by: • growing concern about climate change; • the need to improve energy efﬁciency and reduce capital intensity; • the desire for moresustainable forest management and more efﬁcient use of forest resources, including recycling, reuse and conversion into bioenegy; • focus on customer satisfaction and high-quality niche markets.
The major threats to forest resources in Europe are environmental (ﬁres, pest outbreaks and storms), some of these could increase with climate change. Although the long-term impacts of climatechange on forests are uncertain, many recent catastrophic events have been attributed to it. Considerable increases are projected in the extent and frequency of ﬁres, for example in the Iberian Peninsula and in the Russian Federation
The European forest products sector will need to develop a new range of high-value-added products to meet the increasing demand for “green materials” and