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University of Hull – Business School

“Globalization is a fact of life but I believe we have underestimated its fragility”. From that sentence that Kofi Annan said being Secretary General of the United Nations. We will describe what the objectives of the United Nations are, what their role in Globalization is. Then we will see what the term “globalization” means and what the challenges arefor such a process which is a process of blending or homogenization by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together.
We will show that Globalization is not so global so far… and will go deeper in the reasons why. Why, in which context, Kofi Annan said these words. We will also identify and analyze what the main problems are discuss its fragility.

First ofall, the United Nations (UN) is an international organization “whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achieving world peace.”
United Nations have five main objectives which are:
* To maintain peace and safety in the world
* To develop friendly relationships between the nations* To carry out international cooperation on all the topics where it can be useful
* To be a center where efforts are harmonized in common objectives
* To supervise borders intangibility
Maintaining peace was the main wish of Kofi Annan who was honoured with the Nobel Prize of peace in 2001.

Let us now speak about the definition of globalization. Since the beginning of 1990,“globalization” or “universalization” indicates a new phase in the planetary integration of the economic, financial, ecological and cultural phenomenon. An attentive examination shows that this phenomenon is neither linear nor irreversible.
The term “globalization” indicates the development of interdependence between men and women, human activities and political ones.
Since the Antiquity, someeconomic exchanges between communities and countries were done. The world is consequently built and enriched in supporting the intensification of these exchanges, in spite of crisis periods or destabilization.
Globalization is not recent phenomenon. Some analysts say that economy was also globalized 100 years ago. On the other hand, the exchanges and the finance services are much developed andintegrated today. It is especially necessary to highlight the fact that the integration of financial markets was made possible thanks to the electronic means of communication.
The fall of the Berlin Wall opened a new page of a history marked by an expansion of trade of goods and services never known before, swaps and circulation of information and knowledge.
We can say that Globalization brought a riseof standard of living around the world. In the occident it brought the fall of the living cost, the import of manufactured goods benefitting from the weak wages of “third world”. In the “rest of the world” it brought the investment of the Western capital and the opening of hyper consumption markets which are Europe and North America with their developing economies.
By that globalization, 350million people have emerged from poverty.
Thanks to globalization of the markets, it is possible to benefit from more and larger markets in the world. That means that people can have access to technological capital and resources. Imports are also less expensive and the outlets for exports are widened.
However, the markets necessarily do not guarantee that every country benefit from this increasedefficiency. Countries must be ready to launch the essential policies and, in the case of the poorest ones, they can with this intention need the support of the United Nations.
Globalization, liberalization, internationalization, financialization and standardization are among the many terms used to come to capture the different facets of what is one single, unstable reality: the elusive process...
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