TheProtocol was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan and entered into force on 16 February 2005. As of November 2009, 187 states have signed and ratified the protocol.
Under the Protocol,37 industrialized countries (called "Annex I countries") commit themselves to a reduction of four greenhouse gases (GHG) (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride) . Annex Icountries agreed to reduce their collective greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% from the 1990 level
The Protocol allows for several "flexible mechanisms", such as emissions trading, the clean developmentmechanism (CDM)
Each Annex I country is required to submit an annual report of inventories of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from sources and removals from sinks under UNFCCC and the KyotoProtocol.
Participation in the Kyoto Protocol, as of June 2009, where green indicates the countries that have signed and ratified the treaty, grey is not yet decided and red is no intention toratify.
The Protocol defines three "flexibility mechanisms"
The flexibility mechanism means that there are « programs » which allow us to emit green house with limits :
EMISSIONS TRADING is amarket used to control pollution. There are limits to pollute for all country and when a country want to produce something but to do this he needs to pollute more than the limit, he is meeting othercountry for sold his green house
Clean Development Mechanism
The developed country pay for promote projects that reduce émissions in developing country and in exchange they gain some crédits to...