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Department of Civil Engineering

Liquefaction-induced Ground Deformation and Failure
by Jean-Pierre Bardet, Nicholas Mace and Tetsuo Tobita

A Report to PEER/PG&E Task 4A - Phase 1

May 4, 1999

Table of contents Abstract .............................................................................................................................................iii Acknowledgements........................................................................................................................... iv 1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 5 1.1 Liquefaction-induced lateral spreads ..................................................................................... 5 1.2Field measurement of lateral ground deformation .................................................................8 2. Mechanisms of lateral ground deformation........................................................................ 11 2.1 Laboratory approach ............................................................................................................ 11 2.1.1 Pre-liquefaction behavior.............................................................................................11 2.1.2 Post-liquefaction volumetric deformation.................................................................... 11 2.1.3 Post-liquefaction shear deformation.............................................................................14 2.1.4 Example of calculation of lateral spread displacement basedon laboratory tests .......15 2.2 Centrifuge modeling of liquefaction induced ground displacement .................................... 17 2.3 Shaking Table Experiments .................................................................................................23 2.4 Summary of observations from laboratory, shaking table, and centrifuge experiments......25 2.5 Analytical Modeling ofliquefaction-induced deformation.................................................. 26 2.5.1 Newmark sliding block model .....................................................................................26 2.5.2 Model with shear strength loss and strain rehardening ................................................28 2.5.3 Minimum potential energy model................................................................................ 29 2.5.4 Viscous models ............................................................................................................30 2.5.5 Constitutive modeling and numerical analysis.............................................................31 3. Databases of liquefaction case histories ............................................................................. 333.1 Liquefaction occurrence database (Harder, 1991) and liquefaction analysis (Youd and Idriss, 1998) ........................................................................................................................ 33 3.2 Liquefaction-Induced ground deformation database (Bartlett and Youd, 1992) .................35 3.2.1 Seismicdata.................................................................................................................. 35 3.2.2 Ground displacement amplitude data...........................................................................35 3.2.3 Slope and free face data ............................................................................................... 36 3.2.4 Boreholedata................................................................................................................ 37 3.2.5 Determination of average soil properties at vector location ........................................ 38 3.2.6 Comparison of Harder (1991) and Bartlett and Youd (1992) databases...................... 40 3.2.7 Parameters controlling ground deformation................................................................. 41 3.3 Liquefaction-Induced...
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