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cours n° 1 : Irish history

irish home rule

dominant question of the 19th century
the Home rule party created in 1872
the irish parliamentary party demanded home rule
(Le Home Rule est un projet visant à donner une autonomie interne à l'Irlande, tout en restant sous la tutelle de la couronne britannique. En 1870, Isaac Butt crée la Home Government Association pour lapromotion de l'autonomie de l'île, et l'institution d'un parlement à Dublin, dans le cadre du Royaume-Uni ; en 1873 elle devient la Home Rule League. Cette démarche reprend le combat initié par Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847), le « Libérateur » (the Liberator), ou l'« Émancipateur » (the Emancipator).

the Rising of 1916

The Rising Pâques ( irlandais : Eiri Amach na CASCA) [1] a été uneinsurrection organisée en Irlande au cours de la semaine de Pâques , 1916. The Rising Pâques ( irlandais : Eiri Amach na CASCA) [1] a été une insurrection organisée en Irlande au cours de la semaine de Pâques , 1916. . The Rising a été montée par les républicains irlandais avec les objectifs de mettre fin à la Colombie règle en Irlande et en instituant la République d'Irlande . . [ 2 ] Il a été le plusimportant soulèvement en Irlande depuis la rébellion de 1798 .
april 24 1916 = 1000 ; 1500 Irish men
their intention :
to destroy British rule in Ireland
to create an entirely independant Irish Republic to inclued 32 countries. $Easter Rising was a complete failure
The IRB ( Irish Republican Brotherwood) created in 1858 : 2000 men who lived in England, the USA or elsewhere.
Theywere patriots who were dedicated to the ideal of national independance. An insureection before the end of the British war with Germany.

Easter Rising
to seize certain key points in the city volunteers + citizeb army , 5 major buildings were seized. The headquaters
the provisonnal government of the new Irish republic. Dublin castle ( the centre of British power) artillery and troops +martial law declared
The british began to attack in earnest shelle fire from gunboat Helga.
Pearse and Connollay survendered.
The leades were court matialed and shot some were imprioned and later released

the Anglo -Irish war

the war of independance.
In 1919, the IVF was renamed IRA ( Irsih Republican Army)
the combination of black police uniforms and tan army ourfils = « blacks and tans » ( noir et roux »
Bloody Sunday different from Bloody Sunday of January.
1972 in Northen Ireland during a civil right movement march. The government of Ireland act ( 1920)
the first elections for the N.I. Parliament May 1921: the unionists won 40 out of 52 seats.
The first elections int the nationalists parliament on Dublin: May 1921. Sinn Fein won 124 seats and 4 to theunionists( syndiqués)

The Anglo-Irish Treaty.( traité)
The Truce between the IRA and the British : 11 july 1921.
it remplaced Dublin Home Rule parliament. The new country was called the Irish Free state. Its own army remained within the British commonwealth.
A bundary commission was set up.
On 3rd October 1925, W.T. Cosgrave+ Stanley Baldwin met the report and the border remainedunchanged.
Eamon de Valera was te 1st prime minister of the Irish Free State.
The UK of Great Britain and N.I.
On the 14th December, the Dail Eireann met.
On 7th January 1922: the treaty was accepted by a majority of 64 to 57

The Irish civil war : 1922- 1923.

the seeds (les graines) of the war
The Traty led to a split within the Dail.
In January 1922, the provisonnal governmentwas formed.
Opposents of the Treaty did not recognize the autority of the provisonnal government.

the civil war
The IRA enjoyed no popular support The Free state side received rifles from the British. A guerilla warefare started in Munster wich dragged on for 8 months until spring 1923.
Republicans were leading campaigns of sporadic sabotage.
Commandants Franck Aiken succeded Liam...