Histoire des etats-unis

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CM Mineure Soutien LCE
Semestre 2
M. Super-Chicot
26 Janvier 2010

Etude de périodes distinctes de l'histoire des USA.
Meldwyn Jones – The Limits of Liberty (Chapitres 6 à 20)

American Revolution

The American Revolution has to do with the beginning of the American Nation
Late 18th century
The British were organizing almost everything in America (economy, legal status...)
Tradeacross the atlantic
In the 18th century, there was a huge harbour, Liverpool, and America were in the hands of the merchants of Liverpool. Most of the ship companies were British companies.
''Magic connection'' between Liverpool and Boston
Economic advantage obtained by the British → it is the duty of the American colony to be paying for its own administration. The legal system, the financialsystem had to be paid for by America and not by the British.
→ consequence of this policy : a number of acts were voted in the 18th century, so that america would pay for its administration.
The British Crown wasn't spending anything for its American colony.
1764 Sugar Act : tax on sugar from the Caribbean to America
[boon of nature vs. bane of nature]
1764 Currency act : In the British Empire, inthe days of colonization there was no unity in the minting of coins, and this came to an end from 1764 : all coins were minted in London.
America lost its financial independence. → political disatisfaction grew in America.
1770 Boston Massacre : PARTY TIME ! Uprising against the British troops sationed there which responded by shooting into the crowd. → Turning point in the American Revolution.Beacon Hill = borough of Boston which looks like London
[turmoil = disorder, not necessarily negative]
Most of the tea trades were British, so were the tea companies. Some Boston merchants, in order to protest the ownership of tea companies, emptied a cargo of tea into Boston Harbour.
The American Revolution was a revolution of the trading class. It was not a proletarian revolution. It wasled by the American merchants, shopkeepers, ''business people'' seeking American sovereignty.
→ War in the 18th century, battle of Lexington.
Lexington = next to Boston, near a village of Concord, Massachussets
Battle of Lexington between the British troops and an American militia : 5 killed
→ Declaration of independence, written by Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, on July 4th, 1776.Battles of Charleston (8500 troops), battle of York.
The peace of Paris, 1783, signed by Thomas Jefferson → official recognition of American independence.
The border between the US and Canada didn't move at all, and didn't change ever since.
Convention de Philadelphie 1787 → 13 etats, checks & balances
Constitution → defines the duty of the President, wtf happens if he is to die / be dishonest.The president nominates the supreme court justices.

23 Février 2010

Under Thomas Jefferson, relations witth Britain tended to deteriorate. At the time, the British navy was powerful and the US didn't have a maritime power. Jefferson decided to order British ships out of American Water territories. This Jefferson border represented a tipping of the scales. This announced awar that was going to take place : the 2nd war of independence (the War of the 18-20).
The US was invaded by the British, i.e. They invaded Washington, destroyed the furniture of the White House... Major decision made by Jefferson : the embargo Act. (Act = piece of legislation, voted by congress and becomes law), on December, 22nd 1807. No foreign good may enter the US from then on and for anumber of years ; this led up to the War of 18-20, and this situation, this banning on imports was a ban that applied more specifically to British goods. This was the result of an Economic situation of dependence. This had terrible consequences : for one precise reason, the US were producing cotton, which was sold to the British and made into textile goods to be resold to the US. The US were very...
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