HUMAN FACTOR in LUXURY INDUSTRY
With the arrival of technology, the workflow system of an organization has evolved since the classicalapproach (Taylor). The way an organization is considered is no longer only a function of the technological dimensions but also and with an equal degree of importance a function of the social dimension ofthe job. This is what is called the systemic approach. We will consider technology as the evolution of the workflow system.
The first approach to be considered and studied is the scientificmanagement structure. In order to find the most effective structure, Taylor installed in the 1880’s, an approach that was considered the best at the time. For him, employees needed to be disciplined: authoritywas regarded as important. They were assigned specific tasks (division of work), with the aim to be more performing (functional principle). Hierarchy (the scalar principle) was important as well. Themain motivation for employees was the economic outcome. Therefore, this led to the dehumanization of the workflow: people were managed as machines interacting with machines. As a consequence, unionsof workers formed as well as de-skilling. Indeed, Taylor wanted the workforce to be inter-changeable. At the time, it was considered as efficient, but with the advances of technology, it showed manyweaknesses such as alienation and consequently a decrease in performance. However, the scientific approach installed some basis: for example work study system and payment by results. The scientificapproach is still used depending on the industry, mainly in services: hotels, restaurants.
After the critics of the scientific approach, Mayo demonstrated that a more humanistic management style wasalso essential for performance. The Hawthorne experiments at the western Electric Company put two groups in different situation: one with lighting (A) and the other with no lighting (B). Group B...