Intercultural management

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Management is « getting things done through other people ». (Peter Drucker)
( A manager is considered as a coach, a boss.

Culture is : ( a pattern of basic assumption (religion,…)
( invented, discovered or developed by a given group
( as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration
( that has worked well enoughto be considered valid and therefore
( is to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive and feel in relation to problems
(Edgar Schein)

Culture is the collective programming of the mind (school,…), the software of the mind.

Culture is the way we do things here (Deal & Kennedy) ( DOING / BEING
( 4 levels: - personal level of culture (affinity,…)
- nationallevel of culture (national pride,…)
- professional level of culture (academic, business,…)
- corporate level of culture

3 “do” competencies are known as the ability to :
( develop as the international strategy (a future-oriented personality with a vision)
( act as a coach and coordinator across the borders (show authority and leadership)( act as an intercultural mediator (show empathy, self confidence)

3 “be” competencies include:
( cognitive diversity (think ( integrate & differentiate)
( emotional energy (feel ( the ability to match ideas and feelings)
( psychological maturity (values such as curiosity, ethics and respect for the individual)


Progressive socialization concurrencyduring a person’s life:

Developing intercultural competence is the ability to reconcile seemingly opposing values (F. Trompenaars) with the 4 R’s :
( Recognise cultural differences (1)
( Respect cultural differences (2)
( Reconcile cultural differences (3)
( Realize and Root (4)

1) Developing cultural awareness (knowing who you areon the intercultural map, to what culture you belong). A common attitude of defence is to ignore cultural differences. It is important to recognise and become aware of the fact that there are culture differences in the world.
( reading, research with internet, speaking
2) Showing tolerance and respect for other culture, developing empathy or knowing values, being open-minded, curious andflexible.
( training and experiences
3) Reconciliation of dilemmas managers are facing their work and not imitation of the host culture’s norms, values and attitudes. The goal is to find a win-win situation in opposition to a compromise
( good communication and applying best practices
4) Making sure that the implementation is effective and check this from time to time toassess changes and progress in the various processes
( procedures

There are many interpretations of culture. It can be examined from a point of view of many disciplines: anthropology, linguistics, sociology…
The culture can be compared with an onion :


This onion model compares best with the metaphor of the iceberg :


The seven dimensions of culture (F.Trompenaars)

Every culture has developed its own set of basic assumptions. These basic assumptions can be measured by dimensions. Each dimension is like a continuum. Cultures differ in how they deal with these dimensions. Every culture distinguishes itself from others by the specific solutions it chooses to certain problems that reveal themselves as dilemmas. It is convenient to look at these problemsunder three headings :
- those that arise from relationships with other people
- those that relate to time
- those that relate to nature, our environment

F. Trompenaars identifies seven dimensions of culture :
a) Universalism / Particularism
b) Individualism / Communitarianism
c) Affective / Neutral cultures
d) Specific / Diffuse cultures
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