IRAN: NUCLEAR CRISIS AND PERSIAN TURNEMANTS
Because of the immense military power she can offer, the political control of nuclear weapon is a key issue for the geopolitical negotiations. The entry of Iran to the rank of nuclear power is a nightmare for a lot of western countries. Instability in the Middle East,the higher oil price, the persistent terrorist risks: the Iranian nuclear crisis is a new factor of tension, one of the most threatening.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in charge of the respect of the treaty, is powerless on this ground, from which her inspectors were banished.
In which case the previous actions of western countries make them lost their credibility and their fightagainst in the Iranian nuclear program?
In a first part we will make a return on previous facts to understand the ongoing situation. In a second part, we will talk about the UN role and their action in the Iranian crisis. Finally, we will make a take a turn of the foreign opinions through the reactions of European countries, US, China, Israel, and Islamic countries.
Returns on previous factsThe nuclear program of Iran was launched by the Iranian Shah in the 1950s. A great cooperation between Iran and US during from the 1950s to the 1970s permit to the “Atom for peace” program to grow. Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi reigned over Iran in this period, and after the fall of Mohammad Mossadegh encouraged by CIA in 1953, the government seemed stable and friendly enough to the westerncountries so that the nuclear proliferation didn’t become a threat.
In 1959, the Tehran nuclear research center (TRNC) was establishes and a reactor with a 5MW power working with the highly enriched uranium was provided by Washington. In 1968, Iran signed the non-proliferation treaty. With the creation of an atomic nuclear agency, the Iran had the project to built 23 nuclear power stations in the countrywith US help before 2000.
The Shah really approved the plan to constructed alternatives to the oil power. In March 1974, the Shah envisioned a time when the world's oil supply would run out, and declared, "Petroleum is a noble material, much too valuable to burn ... We envision producing, as soon as possible, 23 000 megawatts of electricity using nuclear plants."
From 1974 to 1979, the USdefended the nuclear program and a lot of partnership for the supply of nuclear equipment and for the exploitation of Uranium and Plutonium. They defended too the creation of a chain to extract Uranium and Plutonium in Iran. But these two materials are too the components of the A-bomb.
But in the 1980s, the change of government in US provokes a radical turnaround of the american opinion on the iranianquestion.
In a same time, the nuclear program was stopped by the revolution. After their political tournaments, Iran asks to the IAEA the authorization to continue his nuclear program. But under the US pression, the IAEA remove his help. The Iranian revolution marked a turnaround in politics relations with western countries. France refused to supply enriched uranium; US and Germany didn’tfurnish the nuclear fuel and materials they were paid for. US make pressure on all the countries that can help Iran in his program and the political context, very different than before the 1980s doesn’t help the Persian nation to find partners. To restore their credibility, Iran brings in a phase of violence and opposition, which will go on until today.
But the situation suddenly got worse since 2002.An Iranian dissident revealed the existence of two nuclear sites under-construction for uranium enrichment, and Iran was immediately accused to break the non-proliferation treaty. In front of the risk of sanction, Iran announces the suspension of his nuclear program for six months in 2005. But during this period, they wanted to continue their research on a few subjects. This request was...