Irak is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert.
Iraq has been home to continuous successive civilizations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraqhas the common epithet, the "Cradle of Civilization", as it was home to the earliest known civilization on Earth, the Sumerian civilization*. Moreover, it’s identified as the birthplace of writing.
1. The iraqi situation
The territory of Irak was, for a long time, part of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman rule over Iraq lasted until the world war one, then the British forces invaded the country.Britain imposed a Hāshimite monarchy (they established the Hashemite king, Faisal) on Iraq and defined the territorial limits of Iraq without taking into account the politics of the different ethnic and religious groups in the country, in particular those of the Kurds and the Syriacs to the north.
During the British occupation, the Shi'ites and Kurds fought for independence.
Britain grantedindependence to Iraq in 1932, on the urging of King Faisal, though the British retained military bases and transit rights for their forces. King Ghazi ruled as a figurehead after King Faisal's death in 1933.
The Hashemite monarchy lasted until 1958, when it was overthrown by a coup d'etat of the Iraqi Army, known as the 14 July Revolution.
In 1968, Abdul Rahman Arif was overthrown by the ArabSocialist Baath Party*.
In 1979, Saddam Hussein took power as Iraqi President after overthrowing his close friend and the leader of his party (Ahmed Hasan Al-Bakr) and killing and arresting his leadership rivals. Shortly after his taking power, the political situation in Iraq's neighbor Iran changed drastically after the success of the Islamic Revolution of Ayatollah* Ruhollah Khomeini*, whichresulted in a Shi'ite Muslim theocratic state being established. This was seen as a dangerous change in the eyes of the Iraqi government, as Iraq too had a Shi'ite majority and was ruled by Hussein's government which, apart from having Sunnis occupying leading positions, had a pan-Arab but non-religious ideology.
This left the country's Shiite population split between the members and supporters ofthe Ba'ath Party, and those who sympathized with the Iranian position. In 1980, Saddam claimed that Iranian forces were trying to topple his government and declared war on Iran. Saddam Hussein supported the Iranian Islamic socialist organization called the People's Mujahedin of Iran which opposed the Iranian government. During the Iran–Iraq War Iraqi forces attacked Iranian soldiers and civilianswith chemical weapons.
Saddam's regime was notorious for its human rights abuses.
On March 20, 2003, a United States-organized coalition invaded Iraq, with the stated reason that Iraq had failed to abandon its nuclear and chemical weapons development program in violation of U.N. Resolution. The United States further justified the invasion by claiming that Iraq had or was developing weapons ofmass destruction and stating a desire to remove an oppressive dictator from power and bring democracy to Iraq.
Government authority was transferred to an Iraqi Interim Government in June 2004. A new constitution was then approved by referendum and a new Government of Iraq was elected in 2005.
As of September 2010, 50,000 US troops remain in the country. The full withdrawal of U.S. forces fromIraq is mandated by 31 December 2011.
2. The iraqi situation
a. history of iraq politics
As we said before, there are many communities who live together in iraq. The communities can have differents point of view concerning the future political system.
The Shi'as have more interests in a unified iraq. In fact, if the state were divided into autonomous regions, the shias would lose...