La place des femmes

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To what extent has place of women evolved since the beginning of the century as regards marriage, work and Education?


The place of the woman evolves in France a lot in the XXth century, wars are the origin of the change. Indeed, the situation of the women in the marriage, in the work and in the education was really transformed.

I- The marriage

Before XXth century, thewoman is completely subjected for her life to the marriage (the husband works and makes the family live). 1960s make of the place(square) of the woman in the marriage a more and more active and independent place(square). Indeed, in 1965 there is a reform of the marriage, the woman can manage her properties(goods), open a bank account, exercise a profession without the authorization of her husband.The marriage becomes a choice which engages(starts) two persons.

In 1968, 17 % of the girls who get married already live with their spouse, in 1977 the percentage passes in 44 %. The marriage is an important passage. In the XIXth century, the age of the marriage is situated around 25-26 years. At the beginning of the XXth century and until 1980, it is around 20-24 years. In the middle of theXXth century, we get married before having a situation, in 1948 12 % of the students are already married.

In 1975, we can divorce freely. In the years 1980-1985 the marriages decrease, and the age of the marriage is situated in 25 years. Little by little, we separate the life of couple and the marriage, which can be optional. The births out of wedlock multiply, and single-parent families too.It is at the end of the XXth century that the woman is really free to marry who(which) she wants, and to have the right(law) to divorce.

II- The Work

Before the beginning of the XXth century the majority of the women worked at home as housewife. In 1906 the work of the women is 38 % of the workers and we can see the first lawyers, the doctors or the professors (Marie Curie is the firstwoman teacher in 1906.).

1/5 of the women bride work, in 1907 they have the right(law) to have their salary has she(it) for the first time. To fight against the infant mortality, the laws evolve and urge the mother to abandon(to give up) her work to raise(to bring up) his(her) children. In 1909 the law establishes a maternity leave of 8 weeks.

Thanks to the first world war, in 1914 thewomen replace the men(people) in factories. The hand of work is rare because the men(people) are left for 5 years to the war. They work on the factory to maintain the economy of the country. Excellent results(profits) are obtained.

In 1918, the men(people) come back from the war. The women have to leave factories. But these women refuse to work as before bus they are less paid than to thefactory, they want returned to factories but places are limited and the men are there.

Previously the husbands could forbid his women to work, but in 1965 the women have the right(law) to work in spite of the opposition of the husband. For the same job the man was paid more expensive than the woman, But in the date of 1971 a law is established, henceforth salaries between men and women for thesame work are the same. It wasn't the only discrimination between men and women, it is for it that since 1975 a law punishes all these discrimination. To force the women to stay in the home(foyer) the State forbids the night work in the industry for the women which occupies responsible jobs, in 1979 this ban is deleted. In 1980, the law forbids to dismiss a pregnant woman. The women of craftsmenor storekeeper working with her husband are not recognized, in 1982 they obtain co-worker's status.

All this experience are there to show that the place of the woman in the work in changed a lot, the women are henceforth much more free in this domain and discriminations between men and women less numerous. In France today, approximately half of the working women are employed and two thirds...
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