La f ermentat ion malolact ique du vin

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MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION IN WINE LA FERMENTATION MALOLACTIQUE DU VIN LA FERMENTACIÓN MALOLÁCTICA DEL VINO LA FERMENTAZIONE MALOLATTICA DEL VINO BIOLOGISCHER SÄUREABBAU IN WEIN APPEL-MELKSUURGISTING IN WYN A FERMENTAÇÃO MALOLÁCTICA DO VINHO ˇ MALOLAKTI CNA FERMENTACIJA VINA

MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION IN WINE
UNDERSTANDING THE SCIENCE AND THE PRACTICE
Magali Bou (France) Dr. Neil Brown (U.S.A.)Dr. Peter Costello (Australia) Dr. Richard Degré (Canada) Wilfried Dieterich (Germany) Sigrid Gertsen-Briand (Canada) Samantha Kollar (U.S.A.) Dr. Sibylle Krieger (Germany) Annamarie Kyne (U.S.A.) Piet Loubser (Republic of South Africa) Dr. Rich Morenzoni (U.S.A.) Dr. Antonio Palacios (Spain) Dr. Chris Powell (United Kingdom) Katie Scully Specht (U.S.A.) Gordon Specht (U.S.A.) Didier Theodore(France) Dr. Sylvie Van Zandycke (Belgium)

Scientific Editor: Dr. Rich Morenzoni Managing Editor: Katie Scully Specht

Published by
OCTOBER 2005

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MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION IN WINE

Production Coordinator: Claude Racine Copy editing: Judith Brown Designer: François Messier Printing: Les Impressions Au Point
Certain research published or cited in this publication was funded in whole or inpart by Lallemand Inc. DISCLAIMER Lallemand has compiled the information contained herein and, to the best of its knowledge, the information is true and accurate. Lallemand offers this publication for use by winemaking professionals worldwide as a compendium of existing knowledge, both scientific and anecdotal, regarding lactic acid bacteria in wine, and malolactic fermentation as conducted inwine. It is the user’s sole responsibility to determine whether any of the information contained herein is of benefit. The information, techniques and procedures presented in this publication are not to be considered as any type of expressed or implied guarantee for any aspect of the winemaking process in any wine-producing country. Lallemand Inc. Montréal, Canada. H1W 2N8 © 2005 Lallemand Inc. Allrights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means whatsoever, whether electronic, mechanical, photocopying or recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Lallemand Inc. ISBN 0-9739147-0-X Legal deposit, Library and Archives Canada 2005 Printed in Canada
OCTOBER 2005

UNDERSTANDING THE SCIENCE AND THE PRACTICE

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CONTENTS
AboutLallemand .......................................................................................................................iv
Section

Contributing Authors ................................................................................................................ 1 Introduction................................................................................................................................ 2 Part One Understanding the Science of Malolactic Fermentation in Wine The History of Malolactic Bacteria in Wine.......................................................................... 3 The Chemistry of Malolactic Fermentation ......................................................................... 4 The Microbiology of Malolactic Fermentation.................................................................... 5 Strain Selection Techniques .................................................................................................... 6 Organoleptic Defects Caused by Uncontrolled Malolactic Fermentation .................... 7 The Nutritional Requirements of Malolactic Bacteria........................................................ 8 Environmental FactorsAffecting Malolactic Fermentation ............................................... 9 Part Two Understanding the Practice of Malolactic Fermentation in Wine Overview – Understanding the Practice of Malolactic Fermentation .......................... 10 Guidelines for Using Commercial Strains .......................................................................... 11 Determining When to Add Malolactic...
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