INTRODUCTION From the birth of human civilization, human instinct has driven people to move across geographic frontiers, be it in search of food and shelter, to avoid persecution, or for an insatiable need to explore. The history of migration has evolved with the rise and fall of civilizations. Today, reshaped by theformation of nation states, extreme poverty, economic imbalances, environmental degradation and security challenges, migration systems have undergone fundamental transformation. The dynamics of modern day migration, with multi-faceted dimensions, complexities and challenges, is a good starting point to better understand trafficking that fundamentally involves the movement of people. Trafficking is aserious crime and embodies many facets of human rights abuses. Thousands of children are caught up in these criminal activities every year, causing them great harm. Over recent years much has been written about the dynamics of trafficking, and many ambitious and well-intentioned statements of commitment to combat trafficking have been made in the international fora. But there is still a lot of gapin between the cup and the lip. Many countries are still lagging behind with regards to ensuring safety and security of their children against trafficking. Rwanda is not exception to this. Rwanda seems to be not yet used by criminals as a source child trafficking. But as an over-populated country, with lot of population living below the poverty line- it is easy for the human traffickers to lurepoor, helpless child out of the country with the promise of better lives, work and future. But as many knows the promises ends up in gruelling torture and subhuman work environment and in some cases death. Trafficking in persons is modern-day slavery, involving victims who are forced, defrauded or coerced into labor or sexual exploitation. Because trafficking in persons is usually an “underground”crime, it can be difficult to identify. Most trafficking victims will not readily volunteer information about their status due to a combination of fear, intimidation, abuse, and psychological controls they’ve suffered at the hands of their trafficker including threats of retribution to themselves or family members. To stop the crime, Government of Rwanda is committed to make a difference to thelives of children vulnerable to trafficking and this commitment is reflected in its various initiatives such as enacting laws suiting to the need of time. But those laws may not be fruitful, due to the lack of knowledge about the trafficking, its forms and causes.
In this work entitled: “child trafficking and its repression under Rwandan law”, we aim to explain more what is trafficking,highlighting its causes and forms, so that it can be easy to fight against this solemn crime. During this work, we will also focus on analyzing legal mechanism both national and international, provided to overcome the trafficking of children, examining whether provided Rwandan legal instrument are enough to deal with this severe crime.
CHAP. 1. CHILD TRAFFICKING BACKGROUND SECT.1. Definition andconcepts
Before any further step, our research needs to explain who is a child. A child is every human being below the age of 18 years unless, under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.1 Many definitions used to articulate the human trafficking problem include Statements that focus on what “occurs” as part of this process of moving and placing a person into a particular...