» Blake, R.S., Mouton, J.S. (1967). The Managerial Grid In Three Dimensions in Training & Development Journal, Vol. 21, Issue 1, pp. 2-6. » Blake, R.S., Mouton, J.S.(1975). An Overview of the Grid.Training & Development Journal, Vol. 29 Issue 5, pp. 29-38. » Blake, R.S., Mouton, J.S.(1982). A ComparativeAnalysis of Situationalism and 9,9 Management by Principle in Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 10 Issue 4, pp. 20-43. » C. Voynnet Fourboul & Frank Bournois (1999). Strategic Communication with Employees in Large European Companies: A Typology. European Management Journal, 03-04, pp. 204-217. » Wikipedia: article on Fons Trompenaars » Chapter 5: Managing across culture, pp132 » Riding the waves ofCulture: Understanding diversity in Global Business, Fons Trompenaars, New York: Irwin, 1994 » http://www.12manage.com » Edward T. Hall – The Hidden Dimension, p. 159
What we propose :
1. Leadership » Theories X, Y » Leadership Behaviors and Styles » Managerial Grid 2. Cross-cultural management issues » HQ Subsidiary attitudes » Cultural dimensions : the right message for the right context »Differences and similarities
“The process of influencing people to direct their efforts toward the achievement of some particular goal or goals.” • So far, little effort has been made to systematically study and compare leadership approaches.
Overview of Leadership Theories
Leadership Theories X, Y, Z
1. 'authoritarian management' style » the person dislikes work and willavoid it » most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work » the person prefers to be directed, to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious 2. 'participative management' style » Effort in work » self-control and self-direction without external control or the threat of punishment » seek responsibility; high degree of imagination, creativity in solving organizational problemsLeadership Theories X, Y, Z
Leadership Behavior and Styles
Authoritarian leadership It is the use of work-centered behavior that is designed to ensure task accomplishment.
Parternalistic leadership It uses work-centered behavior coupled with protective employeecentered concern.
Participative leadership It is the use of both work centeredbehavior and people-centered approaches
by Blake & Mouton (1962)
• • simple framework defines 5 basic management styles that characterize workplace behavior and the resulting relationships managerial styles arebased on how two fundamental concerns (concern for people & concern for tasks) are manifested at varying levels whenever people interact
• Initially two axes were suggested • Scores may range from 1 (lowest score) to 9 (highest) • 9,9 = soundest basis for human relationship in context of production, relationship of trust and respect • 1,9 = “love conquers all”, highconcern for people, friendly organizational climate & work temp • 5,5 = balancing work and people at satisfactory level, “give some, but not all” • 9,1 = people are a used as machines, the only thing that counts are tasks. • 1,1 = Manager has neither concern for people nor for production.
• Each managerial style can be found to some extent in every person • One style might be moredominant/ more characteristic than others. It’s a preference! • Depending on managerial style managers take actions in a certain style:
– A 1,9 oriented boss who wants to please subordinates may be inventive in finding ways to show personal warmth – Through his style one may predict / foresee actions and results which can be derived from his actions.
• In 1967 a third...