Leadership : values

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Leaders can use power for good or ill
Leadership=> Power => Ethical questions=> Values => Choices
Leadership is strongly linked to the degree of trust between the leader and his followers. The leader sets the “moral standard” throughout the company.
Trust in the leader: 4 qualities : Vision / Empathy / Consistency / Integrity (Bennis and Goldsmith)Mc Gregor’s Theory X and Theory Y :
Theory X: Pessimistic view : workers are inherently lazy and leaders should control them
Theory Y: Optimistic view People are motivated to work : Autonomy should be given
Definition of the concept of values :
“Values are constructs representing generalized behaviors or states of affairs that are considered by the individuals important”
Values developearly and are very difficult to change
Values cannot be seen directly: inferences when you observe people’s behaviors (Behavior is the only visible part of the iceberg)
Instrumental values: Modes of behaviors (ex: be positive)
Terminal Values: Desired end state (ex: be accepted among the group)
Zenke study about values changing depending on the generation
1. Veterans
2. Baby boomers3. The Gen Xers
4. The Nexters
(Main difference between these categories: relationship to authority / will to get more autonomy)
His work is criticized but new studies show there are dynamic “Generation archetypes” which are recurring regularly throughout history:
5. Prophet : seek social consensus after major disaster
6. Nomad : revolt against the system during cultural renewal7. Hero : individualism, personal success after the spiritual awakening
8. Artist : Focus on essentials during a great war or crisis

Moral Reasoning : (MR)
Moral reasoning refers to the process leaders use to make decisions about ethical or unethical behaviors. Moral reasoning does to refer to the morality of individuals per se, or their espoused values but rather to the manner bywhich they solve moral problems
3 stages to understand that : (Kohlberg)
1. Preconventional : Self interested view (avoid punishment or be rewarded)
2. Conventional : The others ‘view (gaining other’s approval and behaving)
3. Postconventional : Concept of universal principles
Individuals “move” in the moral stages through life: particularly during their twenties and thirties
Peopletend to gather based on values but it is important to have a group zith different values as to challenge the status quo and avoid group think
The organization also has values: but there may be differences between what it states and how it operates.
Some categorization of values:
* Commercial VS Altruistic
* Affiliation VS Power
* Recognition VS Security
* Hedonism VS Tradition* Aesthetic VS Science
Positive forms of leadership
1. Authentic leadership is value-driven as there is a clear link between how the leader feel and act in the workplace: treating others with dignity and empathy / high level of self perception : are “real” and don’t play roles
2. Servant leadership is a way to see the leader’s purpose to serve the others (Characteristics involved :listening / empathy / healing / awareness / persuasion / conceptualization / foresight / stewardship /commitment to others / building community)
Why good people do bad things ?
Concept of moral justification
Some unethical behaviors is explained by the people in charge with such process:
1. Euphemistic labeling
2. Advantageous comparison
3. Displacement of responsibility
4. Diffusionof responsibility
5. Dehumanization
6. Attribution of blame

3 dimensions in leadership:
1. Yourself
2. Relations with others
3. Relations to the organization
Leading across cultures :
Culture refers to those learned behaviors characterizing the total way of life of member within any given society
Once again :
Behaviors: Visible Values: Invisible
Hofstede’s five...