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ARTICLE IN PRESS
International Dairy Journal 18 (2008) 735– 740

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

International Dairy Journal
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/idairyj

Review

Membrane processes in dairy technology—From a simple idea to worldwide panacea
Yves Pouliot Ã
´ STELA Dairy Research Center, Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods (INAF), PavillonPaul-Comtois, Universite Laval, Qc, Canada G1K 7P4

abstract

Membrane technology has been applied in the dairy industry since the early 1970s. The applications of membrane processes are used as alternative to some unit operations, in the solving of separation issues and in the development of new dairy products. The contemporary pressure-driven membrane units include microfiltration (MF),ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) and the main applications are related to dairy-based protein ingredients, pre-concentration of milk before cheese manufacture and alternative technology for extending shelf life of milk. The development of value-added products from minor milk compounds represents one of the most promising applications of membranes in dairy. Importantchallenges worldwide face membrane technologies in the near future. & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents 1. 2. 3. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735 Membranes and dairy technology: four decades ofinnovations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 736 Membrane processes at the turn of the new millenium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737 3.1. Manufacture of dairy-based protein ingredients . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737 3.2. Pre-concentration of milk before cheese manufacture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738 3.3. An alternative technology for extending shelf life of milk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738 The future of membrane processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739 4.1. Tools for new value-added products from milk and whey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739 4.2. Technological challenges worldwide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739 Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740

4.

5.

1. Introduction The idea of using a membrane as a tool for separation probably ´ dates back to the 18th century when, for example in 1748, Abbe Nolet first used the word osmosis to describe the permeation of water through a diaphragm made of a...
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