I. GENERALITIES & KEY FIGURES
|Area | 1 972 550 km2 |
|Water (%) |2.5 |
|Population |111 211 789 (11th) |
|(2009) | |
|Density |55/km2 (142nd) |
|Capital|Mexico City |
|Currency |Peso |
|Official language: Spanish |
|« Trade » language: English & Spanish |
• Administrative organization & Population
Mexico, equally called the United Mexican States, is a federation of thirty-one free and sovereign states,which form a union that exercises jurisdiction over the Federal District and other territories (some of them are : Chihuahua, Yucatan, Oaxaca, Veracruz, etc). Each state has its own constitution, congress, and a judiciary, and its citizens elect by direct voting a governor for a six-year term and representatives to their respective unicameral state congresses for three-year terms. The states aredivided into municipalities, the smallest administrative political entity in the country, governed by a mayor or municipal president (Presidente municipal), elected by its residents by plurality. Municipalities can be further subdivided into non-autonomous boroughs or in semi-autonomous auxiliary presidencies.
In Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica many cultures matured into advanced civilizations such asthe Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacan, the Zapotec, the Maya and the Aztec before the first contact with Europeans. In 1521, Spain conquered and colonized the territory, which was administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This territory would eventually become Mexico as the colony independence was recognized in 1821. The post-independence period was characterized by economic instability, theMexican–American War and territorial cession to the US, a civil war, two empires and a domestic dictatorship. The latter led to the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system. Elections held in July 2000 marked the first time that an opposition party won the presidency from the InstitutionalRevolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI).
• Political situation
Mexico is a federation whose government is representative, democratic and republican based on a presidential system according to the 1917 Constitution. The constitution establishes three levels of government: the federal Union, the state governments and the municipal governments. Allofficials at the three levels are elected by voters through first-past-the-post plurality, proportional representation or are appointed by other elected officials.Nowadays, the political leader is Felipe Calderon Hinojosa (he is the president of the constitution since the 2nd July 2006). The next presidential elections are in July 2012.
• Religion & Traditions
Mexico has no officialreligion, and the government does not provide any financial contributions to the church, and the church does not participate in public education. The last census reported, by self-ascription, that at least 82.8% of the population is Christian. Roman Catholics are 76.5% of the total population, 47% percent of whom attend church services weekly. In absolute terms, Mexico has the world's second largestnumber of Catholics after Brazil. About 6.3% of the population is Protestant, of whom Pentecostals (1.4%) are the largest group. There are also a sizeable number of Seventh-day Adventists (0.6 million people). The Jehovah's Witnesses are 1.1% of the country's population. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints claims over one million registered members as of 2009. About 25% of registered...