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I- Story and character of Giuseppe Mazzini.
Giuseppe Mazzini was born in 1805 in Genoa. He was the son of a professor of pathology at Genoa University, who had adhered to theJacobin ideology. His mother was renown for her beauty and her religious fervor. After the revolutions of 1820 he became a nationalist. He was accepted at the university at the age of fourteen because ofhis good learning qualities. His experiences as a student converted him to the vision of a united liberal republic. Mazzini did not enjoy his time at university but acquired a degree in law in 1827.In 1830, Mazzini traveled to Tuscany and joined the Carbonari but was arrested in 1830 and sent in Savona. During his imprisonment, he made the decision to work on independence and unification ofItaly. He was released at the beginning of the year 1831 but he chose to go on exile in Marseille, in south of France. There, he founded a new secret society, “Young Italy”. The goal of this organizationwas to create a united Italian republic by promoting a general insurrection in the lands occupied by the Austrian Empire. He believed that if the organization became popular, Italy could be united.Later, in 1837, he went on exile in London where he tried to organize Italian émigrés into a National Italian Committee, based in London. In the future, this became the National Party that merged theprinciple of popular sovereignty. The highlight of Mazzini’s life occurred when he went back to Italy in 1849 as Head of the Roman Republic until Rome fell to the French in June 1849. After theseevents, he returned to London; where he lived in poverty until 1872, date of his return to Italy. He died in Pisa and was buried in Genoa.

II- Beliefs and reasons for his popularity or unpopularity.
Onone hand, Mazzini based his theories on religion. All his ideas were related to the existence of God, the equality of men and of different races. Mazzini explained in his essays that mankind was in...