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The founding treaties

The Institutional Framework

Treaty of Rome
Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (“EEC Treaty”): signed in Rome on 25 March 1957/ entry into force January 1958
( Purpose: embrace the whole economic relationships that may exist between MS. (eg agriculture, transportation, free movement of goods and people, etc.) in order to establish a Common Market(Means: promote the economic integration of national markets

The EEC has evolved since 1957 through:
( Enlargements
_ 6 original MS: Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg
_ 1973: GB, Denmark, Ireland
_ 1979: Greece
_ 1985: Spain & Portugal
_ 1995: Austria, Finland, Sweden
_ 2004: Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, CzechRepublic
_ 2007: Bulgaria & Romania)
_ Merger Treaty (1965)
_ Single European Act (1986)

Treaty of Maastricht

Treaty on the European Union (EU Treaty)
signed in Maastrich on 7 Feb. 1992
(Creation of the Monteray Union
_ converging criteria :
_ budget deficit of less than 3% of MS GDP
_ debt ratio of less than 60% of MS GDP
_ Low inflation
_ Interest rates close to theEU average
(Creation of a « pillar structure » in the EU
_ European Community (most integrated pillar)
_ Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP – IG
_ Justice and Home affairs (JHA – IG policy)

Treaty ofAmsterdam

(Treaty of Amsterdam amending EU and EC treaties:
signed on 2nd Oct.1997
(This Treaty put an emphasis on:
_ citizenship and the rights of individuals,
_ greaterdemocracy (increased powers for the European Parliament)
_ Marked the beginnings of CFSP
_ reformed the institutions re the run-up to enlargement
_ Introduced the notion of a “Community area of freedom,
security and justice”

Treaty of Nice

_ Treaty signed in Nice on 26 Feb. 2001
_ Treaty of Amsterdam provided:
"at least one year before the membership of the EU exceeds twenty, aconference of representatives of the governments of the MS shall be convened in order to carry out a comprehensive review of the provisions of the Treaties on the composition and functioning of the institutions".
( Intergovernmental Conference 2000 mission was:
_ size and composition of the Commission;
_ weighting of votes in the Council;
_ extension of qualified-majority voting;
(No Majorinstitutional change, rather

Treaty of Lisbonne

(Origins: Treaty establishing a European Constitution (not ratified)
_ IGC June 2007 adopted a Treaty on the reform of the EU instead
_ Entry into force: 1st Jan. 2009 if ratified by 27 MS
_ Treaty amends EU and EC treaties without replacing them
_ Establish a more democratic Europe
_ Efficient voting mechanisms (QMV)
_Assertive European values
_ Effective consistent and transparent institutional framework

The Council of the EU

Art EU 13 - Common Security Policy (apply in cooperation with the European Council)
3. The Council shall take the decisions necessary for defining and implementing the common foreign and security policy on the basis of the general guidelines defined by the European Council.(The Council shall recommend common strategies to the European
Council and shall implement them, in particular by adopting joint
actions and common positions.
(The Council shall ensure the unity, consistency and effectiveness of
action by the Union.
_ ensure coordination of the general economic policies of the Member
_ have power to take decisions,
_ confer on the Commission,in the acts which the Council adopts,
powers for the implementation of the rules which the Council lays
down. (…)

The European Council

The European Council shall provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development and shall define the general political guidelines thereof. The European Council shall bring together the Heads of State or Government of the Member...
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