Memoire en anglais : les jeux d'argent au royaume uni

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I got interested in the gambling phenomenon since I first arrived in UK.
One of the main reasons must be that in my country gambling is regarded very differently by people as well as by the government.
Now I am attracted by the games and in particular, those that are not very spread in the place I live like betting on sport.
But before realizing by myself how gamblingis rooted in British culture by observing my friends, people in pubs, casinos or even just by watching TV (poker tournaments, racing channels), I understood it by the word itself.

In my mother tongue’s vocabulary, and as far as I know in the other languages I have been studying, an equivalent to “gambling” does not exists.
I mean a word which sense is “playing for money” does not.
Gambling: “wagering money or something of material value on something with an uncertain outcome in hope of winning additional money or material goods.”

I always thought it was a huge proof to show us how much the phenomenon is important in Briton’s culture.


Man has always gambled.
All the different human groups that developed in different part of theglobe showed evidences of game and gambling in their earliest records.

  For example, gambling artefacts have been recovered from ancient China (2300 B.C.), India, Egypt and Rome. A set of ivory dice dating from before 1500 BC were found from Thebes, and writings mentioning gambling were found on a tablet in the Pyramid of Cheops. As early as the 14th century, we have some of the firstfindings of gambling becoming outlawed; King Henry VIII of England did so when he discovered that his soldiers were spending more time gambling than working on drills and marksmanship.

The idea of blackjack and poker came from the practice of shuffling paper money in China around 900 A.D.  This evolved into card playing, which was consequently brought to Europe via the Mameluke Empire.  Beingfollowers of Islam, the Mameluke people did not have their playing cards decorated with human forms; Instead, they were filled by Muslim carpets. 
When the cards made their way to Italy and Spain, card makers began distinguishing cards with the royal ranks of men who held power in the Royal Court.  The Queen of today's decks did not appear on the scene until the 1500's, when the French got ahold of them and replaced one of the male cards with a female figure representing a Queen.  This pack of cards became known as the "French Pack", and served as the prototype of the 52 card deck we are so familiar with today.

The history of roulette is an interesting story as well.  Roulette, which means "small wheel" in French, was modernized into the game we know today by Francois and LouisBlanc.  These two invented the "Single 0" game in 1842, which was brought to America around the same time.  It was the Americans who added the "Double 0" to the wheel, thus creating a different version ( the American Roulette).

The origins of the roulette wheel itself are a little more ambiguous.  Some sources espouse that the 17th century mathematician, Blaise Pascal, created the wheel.  Thereis also information supporting the theory that the Chinese invented the wheel, and that it eventually made its way into Europe by Dominican monks. 

Dices exist for more than 2,000 years, manifesting into all kinds of games along their journey.  Of these games, craps has achieved the most lasting fame and popularity.  Originally called "Hazard", craps was originally played in the privategambling parlors by only the elite and upper class citizens of 18th and 19th century England.  The game was imported into France soon after and was called "craps" - a derivation of the word "crabs", meaning "pair of ones". 

The gambling casinos of today have come a long way since their early beginnings.  When America became an independent country in 1776, the newly formed government used gambling...