Today, I will expose the main caracteristics of the MK Ultra project, also known as the "MK Ultra", code name used to design a CIA project which lasted from 1950 to 1970. The aim of this project was to manipulate mentally some people by using psychotropic substances injections.
I. TITLE AND ORIGINSThe project's intentionally oblique CIA cryptonym is made out of thedigraph MK, meaning that the project was sponsored by the agency'sTechnical Services Division, followed by the word ULTRA (which had previously been used to designate the most secret classification of World War II intelligence). A precursor of the MK-ULTRA program began in 1945 when the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency was established and given direct responsibility for Operation Paperclip.Operation Paperclip was a program to recruit former Nazi scientists. Some of these scientists studied torture and brainwashing, and several had just been identified and prosecuted as war criminals during the Nuremberg Trials. Headed by Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, the MK-ULTRA project was started on the order of CIA director Allen Dulles on April 13, 1953, largely in response to Soviet, Chinese, and NorthKorean use of mind-control techniques on U.S. prisoners of war in Korea. The CIA wanted to use similar methods on their own captives. The CIA was also interested in being able to manipulate foreign leaders with such techniques, and would later invent several schemes to drug Fidel Castro.
Experiments were often conducted without the subjects' knowledge or consent. In some cases, academic researchersbeing funded through grants from CIA front organizations were unaware that their work was being used for these purposes.
In 1964, the project was renamed MK-SEARCH. The project attempted to produce a perfect truth drug used to question suspected Soviet spies during the Cold War, and generally to explore any other possibilities of mind control. Because most MK-ULTRA records were deliberatelydestroyed in 1973 by order of then CIA Director Richard Helms, it has been difficult, if not impossible, for investigators to gain a complete understanding of the more than 150 individually funded research sub-projects sponsored by MK-ULTRA and related CIA programs.
II. GOALS AND BUDGET
The Agency poured millions of dollars into studies probing dozens of methods of influencing and controlling themind, and of enhancing their ability to extract information from resistant subjects during interrogation.
One MK Ultra document from 1955 gives an indication of the size and range of the effort; this document refers to the study of an assortment of mind-altering substances that I've listed on the 2nd paper joined.
A secretive arrangement granted the MK-ULTRA program a percentage of the CIAbudget. The MK-ULTRA director was granted six percent of the CIA operating budget in 1953, without oversight or accounting. An estimated $10 million USD or more was spent.
LSD : Early efforts focused on LSD, which later came to dominate many of MK-ULTRA's programs. Experiments included administering LSD to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, othergovernment agents, prostitutes, mentally ill patients, and members of the general public in order to study their reactions. LSD and other drugs were usually administered without the subject's knowledge or informed consent, a violation of the Nuremberg Code that the U.S. agreed to follow after World War II. Efforts to "recruit" subjects were often illegal, even discounting the fact that drugs were beingadministered (though actual use of LSD, for example, was legal in the United States until October 6, 1966). In Operation Midnight Climax, the CIA set up several brothels to obtain a selection of men who would be too embarrassed to talk about the events. The men were dosed with LSD, the brothels were equipped with one-way mirrors, and the sessions were filmed for later viewing and study. Some...