A WELCOME EXPRESSION OF INTENT
THE NAIROBI COMMUNIQUE AND THE EX-FAR/INTERAHAMWE
PO Box 3836, Kigali, Rwanda Tel: 00 250 50 36 79 Email: email@example.com Web: www.africanrights.org
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY INTRODUCTION A LONG CHAIN The Origins and Evolution of the Political/Military Organizations of the Ex-FAR and Interahamwe Same People, DifferentOrganizations 1995: The Creation of the RDR 1996: The Founding of PALIR 1997-1998: The Insurgency in the Northwest of Rwanda and the Birth of ALIR 1997: The Departure of Renzaho and Ntiwiragabo for Sudan 1998: A new Chance for ALIR as Rwanda Launches War in the DRC 1998: The Founding of CCR 1999: The Emergence of the FDLR 2000: Ignace Murwanashyaka Assumes the Presidency 2002-2003: Regrouping in theEast 2004: RUD-URUNANA Comes Into Its Own 2005: The Announcement of CMC-FOCA, FDLR-CMC 2005-2006: Rasta Comes to Light 2006: A Revolt in FOCA Leads to AN-Imboneza 2. THE POLITICAL AND MILITARY STRUCTURE OF THE FDLR/RUD TODAY The Political Leadership of the FDLR FOCA: The Military Wing of the FDLR The Political Leadership of RUD/URUNANA The Military Leadership of RUD/URUNANA 3. REPRESENTATIVES ANDLOBBYISTS IN AFRICA, EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA Africa Europe and North America 4 5
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THE TARGETS OF THE AGREEMENT & THE GENOCIDE Preliminary Details on Some Individuals FDLR Military Commanders in North Kivu FDLR Civilian Advisors in the Kivus Congo-Brazzaville Zambia Malawi France Belgium
4250 54 57 61 61 66 68 78 84
5. 6. 7.
OTHER GENOCIDE SUSPECTS IN THE DRC CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS THE NAIROBI COMMUNIQUE AS AN ANNEX
ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY
ADFL ALIR CCR CDR CNDP DRC ESO FAC FAR FARDC FDLR-FOCA ICTR MDR MONUC MRND Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire Liberation Army of Rwanda Committee of Co-ordination for the Resistance Committee forthe Defence of the Republic National Congress for the Defence of the People Democratic Republic of Congo Academy for Non-Commissioned Officers Congolese Armed Forces Rwandese Armed Forces Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (After 2003) Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda-Fighting Forces International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda Democratic Republican Movement UnitedNations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo National Republican Movement for Development (1975-1991) and National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (1991-1994) Armed People for the Liberation of Rwanda Coalition of Congolese Patriotic Fighters Liberal Party Social Democratic Party Congolese Rally for Democracy Republican Rally for Democracy in Rwanda RwandesePatriotic Army Rwandese Patriotic Front Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines Rally for Unity and Democracy United Nations Assistance Mission to Rwanda
PALIR PARECO PL PSD RCD RDR RPA RPF RTLM RUD/URUNANA UNAMIR
Terms for Administrative Units and Their Corresponding Administrators Rwanda’s local administrative structure was changed between 2001-2006. However, in this report, we have used thegeographical locations, the names of administrative units and their corresponding administrators as they existed in 1994.
On 9 November 2007, representatives of the Governments of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Rwanda met in Nairobi, Kenya, and signed a communique pledging “a common approach to address the threat posed to our common security and stability bythe exFAR/Interahamwe.”1 The agreement was facilitated by the United Nations and witnessed by the United States and the European Union. This new accord represents a comprehensive and construc tive point of departure that could pave the way for an end to the armed presence of the ex-FAR and interahamwe in eastern DRC, and to the needless suffering of those living in North and South Kivu provinces,...