Niestzche

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  • Publié le : 10 octobre 2010
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In Tudor England groups of strolling players toured the country performing plays. These plays were performed in barns and in the courtyards of inns. One of the most popular subjects of these plays was the story of Robin Hood.
The English government did not approve of strolling players as it was worried that plays on subjects such as Robin Hood would encourage the people to become rebellious.Another fear was that strolling players were responsible for spreading diseases such as the plague.
In 1572 a law was passed banning strolling players from touring the country. The only actors allowed were those employed by noblemen. During the next two years, Elizabeth gave permission for four noblemen to start their own theatre companies. However, actresses were not allowed to join. Women's partshad to be played by young boys.
At first these theatre groups performed in the courtyards of inns. These inns could only provide seats for small audiences. Therefore, in 1577 Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, built a permanent theatre in London for his group of actors. This venture was a great success and it was not long before there were several theatres in London. Prices were low so most peoplewho lived in London could afford to go to the theatre. It cost only a penny to stand but it was extra if you wanted to sit down.
By 1595 over 15,000 people a week were attending plays being performed in London theatres. There was now a great need for new plays to be written.
The most important playwright of the period was William Shakespeare . His first play, Henry VI, was performed in 1592. Inthe next eleven years twenty-three of Shakespeare's plays were performed in London. These included Hamlet,Romeo and Juliet, The Merchant of Venice, King Lear, Macbeth, and Julius Caesar.
Shakespeare also wrote several-plays about former kings of England. Plays that showed weak and corrupt Yorkist kings such as Richard III were very popular with the Tudors.
Elizabethan plays were often used aspropaganda. For example, a play called Alarum for London, that showed Spanish
soldiers killing innocent civilians in Antwerp, was performed many times during Elizabeth's conflict with Philip II in the 1580s.

Prince Hamlet of Denmark is urged by his father’s Ghost to avenge his murder at the hands of the dead king’s brother, now King Claudius; to make matters worse, Claudius has married thewidow, Hamlet’s mother, Queen Gertrude. Denmark is under threat of invasion from young Fortinbras, who seeks to regain lands lost to Hamlet’s father by Fortinbras’s father. Claudius sends word to the King of Norway (Fortinbras’s uncle) to curb Fortinbras’s aggression. In the meantime, Hamlet feigns madness with his family and friends, including his beloved, Ophelia, sister to Laertes and daughter toPolonius. Both Polonius and Laertes warn Ophelia against Hamlet’s amorous advances. Polonius believes Hamlet’s “madness” to be love sickness. Laertes is given permission to return to his studies in Paris.
Claudius directs Gertrude to try to learn the cause of Hamlet’s odd behavior; they suspect it is the old king’s death and their own recent marriage. Meantime, Claudius and Polonius eavesdrop onOphelia and Hamlet, who spurns her and appears mad. The King reveals to Polonius his plan to send Hamlet to England with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern.
Hamlet seizes the opportunity presented by a traveling troupe of players to expose the King’s guilt with Prince Hamlet of Denmark is urged by his father’s Ghost to avenge his murder at the hands of the dead king’s brother, now King Claudius; tomake matters worse, Claudius has married the widow, Hamlet’s mother, Queen Gertrude. Denmark is under threat of invasion from young Fortinbras, who seeks to regain lands lost to Hamlet’s father by Fortinbras’s father. Claudius sends word to the King of Norway (Fortinbras’s uncle) to curb Fortinbras’s aggression. In the meantime, Hamlet feigns madness with his family and friends, including his...
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