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IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.7 No.7, July 2007


3D Representation of Radar Coverage in Complex Environment
Chen Peng1† and Wu Lingda2††,
Multimedia R&D Center of National University of Defense Technology, ChangSha, China Summary
3D representation of Radar electromagnetic information affected by terrain, ocean and weather is an unavoidableproblem in the future digital battlefield. Based on APM(Advanced Propagation Model), in-plane propagation loss was calculated by the virtual of digitalized virtual battlefield. Then 2D in-plane coverage of given Radar was deduced. At last multiple such 2D coverage were combined together to construct the 3D Radar coverage. Our experiment of embedding a typical Radar into digital battlefield showedthat the 3D Radar coverage affected by complex environment was vividly and dynamically visualized in time and parameters of Radar and target could be adjusted interactively, which could provide excellent decision supporting and plan aiding for users.

Key words:
Radar Coverage; virtual battlefield; 3D Visualization;

1. Introduction
As Virtual Reality (VR) technology is widely used in dailydrill and operation commands, combat games such as America’s Army are walking up to actual combat drill. The article of “Virtual Reality Prepares Soldiers for Real War” published by The Washington Post on Feb 14, 2006 said that American soldiers regarded actual combats as computer game[1]. It can be said that VR not only have transformed the way the United States military fights wars, as well assoldiers' ways of killing. The technique of representing real terrain, physiognomy, bilateral situation and force location can now satisfy these basic requirements[2-5]. But for the invisible electromagnetic environment, it is not only laid on the performance of equipments themselves, but greatly on the environment around them. So it is extremely difficult to represent 3D electromagneticenvironment efficiently and accurately. 2D Radar coverage diagrams drawn by hand or aimed by computers is the traditional manner of representing Radar electromagnetic information after obtaining the related electromagnetic information datum[6]. There are some evident shortages: ①2D curve cannot intuitively represent 3D Radar electromagnetic information; ②Radar coverage diagrams cannot change as targetparameters change; ③ Radar coverage diagrams cannot represent the effects of jam coming from different directions or distances. The communication planners currently draw the locations of antennas on map only by hand and utilize coverage
Manuscript received July 5, 2007 Manuscript revised July 25, 2007

diagram and text information to represent the whole coverage. That needs much experience on radioequipments, weather, terrain and other environment factors. So the traditional representation methods can’t satisfy the modern martial requirements. Future digital battlefield environment has to integrally consider the influences of complex environment so as to give user an exact 3D Radar Coverage, make user more clear about the current electromagnetic situation and make communication plannersmore realize the communication problems. The rigorous prediction of radar coverage in complex environment entails our solving the “vector wave equation”, which is derived from Maxwell’s electromagnetic field equations. Such a solution is challenging for two primary reasons. First, the slopes of the irregular terrain couple the three components of the vector field in an intricate fashion. Second, theinhomogeneity of the atmosphere complicates the nature of the field equations. These complications rule out analytical closed form solutions, leaving numerical simulations as the only resort. The methods applied to solve these problems are generally categorized as integral equation methods and differential equation methods. Integral equation methods result in extremely large, full matrices that...
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