Peace in iraq

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HagaMUN 2010: Research Report

Forum: General Assembly 1st Committee: Disarmament and International Security
Issue: Ensuring peace and stability in Iraq after the departure of the United States of America and its allies
Student Officer: Bas Duivenvoorde, Chair


March 20th, 2003, was the day that the Republic of Iraq was invaded by a multinational force led by theUnited States of America and the United Kingdom. These forces have been occupying Iraq until today, though, since August 2009 all non US troops have been withdrawn. One of the first things President Barack Obama of the USA did after his inauguration in January 2009 was to set up a timetable for the withdrawal of the US troops.

The plan, as explained in a speech by Obama in February 2009, callsfor most US troops to leave Iraq by August 2010. A force of 35,000 to 50,000 troops will remain in the country to assist Iraqi security forces, protect Americans and fight terrorism. All troops will be withdrawn by the end of 2011, a date established last year by the administration of the former US President George W. Bush and the Iraqi government. Another condition of that agreement requires UStroops leave Iraqi cities by June 30 this year.

Yet, it is very questionable whether Iraq can survive without foreign troops. Given the fact that the country is very unstable and that all three major ethnic population groups in the country: the Sunnis, Shiites and the Kurds have difficulties with each other.

History of the Issue

The Iraq War (also known as the Second Gulf Waror Operation Iraqi Freedom) after a period of tensions with the USA and the UK. These countries claimed that Iraq was in the possession of weapons of mass destruction. The United Nations Security Council called for, in UNSC Resolution 1441, for Iraq to completely cooperate with United Nations weapon inspectors to confirm that Iraq did not in possess any weapons of mass destruction. The UnitedNations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) did not found evidence of weapons of mass destruction, the Commission could not verify the accuracy of Iraq's weapon declarations though.

However, the governments of the United States of America, the United Kingdom and their allies did not trust Iraq and basically ignored the conclusion of UNMOVIC. And therefore they invaded Iraqon the 20th of March 2003. After a short period of fighting the multinational forces occupied Iraq. The occupation promised rural years.
In June 28 2004, the US and its allies transfer the sovereignty of Iraq to an Iraqi interim government which followed in January with the election of a transitional government, in October 15th a referendum was held to adopt a new constitution. In Decemberof the same year democratic elections were held for the National Assembly of Iraq. This Assembly concludes all population groups (the Sunnis, Shiites and Kurds), which was not the case in pre-occupied Iraq.
The new elections did not bring peace and stability in the country. 2006 was marked by terrorist attacks and military interventions. After a short trial the former President of Iraq, SaddamHussein was executed on December 30th 2006.
Whilst in January 2007 most members of the multinational force already had withdrawn their troops, President Bush of the United States announced a troop surge, which actually increased the number of US troops in Iraq. Bush ordered the deployment of more than 20,000 soldiers into Iraq and sent the majority of them into Baghdad. The President described theoverall aim as establishing an unified, democratic federal Iraq that can govern itself, defend itself, sustain itself, and is an ally in the War on Terror. The major element of the strategy was a change in focus for the US military; to help Iraqis clear and secure neighbourhoods, to help them protect the local inhabitants and to help ensure that the Iraqi forces left behind are capable of...