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Improvement of spraying practices to minimize the effects on non target organisms and delay resistance to larvicides during the black fly larval control.

THESIS

Presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Philosophy Degree in Applied Entomology
By
BALEGUEL NKOT
Major: Entomology
Reg. no.

CosupervisorSupervisor Professor

June 2010

Improvement of spraying practices to minimize the effects on non target organisms and delay resistance to larvicides during the black fly (Diptera-Simulidae) larval control.

THESIS

Presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Philosophy Degree in Applied Entomology
By
BALEGUEL NKOT
Major: Entomology
Reg. no.Cosupervisor Supervisor Professor
Dr Richard .T Ghogomou
FASA

June 2010
2. Thesis defendedon June 2010 before a panel of

Professor President

Docteur Rapporteur

Docteur Member

Docteur Member

3. Dedication

4. Acknowledgements

5. ContentPages
1.
2.

3. Dedication...................................................................... IV

4. Acknowledgements.........................................................

5. Content .............................................................................

6. List of tables.......................................................................

7. List of figures

8. List of appendices

9. List of abbreviations

10. Abstract and résumé

11. Introduction

12. Literature review

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

14. References

6. List of tables

Table 1.
Table 2.
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Table 4.
Table 5.
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Table 8.

Table 9

Table 10

Table 11.Table 12.
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Table 33 to 39

7. List of figures

Figure. 1.

Figure 2.

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Figure 8.Figure 9 to 11.

Figure 12.

Picture 1.

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Graphic 1.

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8. List of appendices

9. List of abbreviations

10. Abstract et resumé

Resumé

Introduction
Key words: Improvement- spraying-non target organisms-resistance- blackfly

Preliminary steps are required for a good strategy of development,firstly, a clear description of the situation with a good inventory of the problems and the comprehension of fundamental mechanisms which commend the natural, physical, economical, social and environmental evolution, secondly the valorisation of the acquired information and thirdly the implementation of sustainability approach taking into account the protection of the environnement (Winter and Leveque,1995).

At the global Economic Forum in Davos in January 2007, the need to improve trade with poor countries was discussed with emphasis on changing subsidies provided to farmers in Europe and North America. Even if barriers to trade are dealt with, it remains the problem of improving agricultural productivity in poor countries. Globally, crop diseases, pests and weeds reduce yields and as a...
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