POLITICAL THEORY AND
With a New Afterword by the Author
Charles R. Beitz
PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS
PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY
Copyright © 1979 by Princeton University Press Published by Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 In the United Kingdom: Princeton University Press, 3Market Place, Woodstock, Oxfordshire OX20 1SY Afterword © 1999 by Princeton University Press
All Rights Reserved
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Beitz, Charles R. Political theory and international relations / Charles R. Beitz. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-691-07614-6 1. International relations. 2. World politics. I. Title. JZ1305.B45 1999327. 1'01— dc21 99-12992
This book has been composed in VIP Baskerville
Preface Introduction International Relations as a State of Nature
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
The Skepticism of the Realists The Hobbesian Situation International Relations as a State of Nature The Basis of International Morality From International Skepticism to theMorality of States
15 27 35 50
The Autonomy of States
1. State Autonomy and Individual Liberty 2. Nonintervention, Paternalism, and Neutrality 3. Self-determination 4. Eligibility, Boundaries, and Nationality 5. Economic Dependence 6. State Autonomy and Domestic Social Justice
83 92 105 116 121
Part Three. International Distributive Justice
1. SocialCooperation, Boundaries, and the Basis of Justice 2. Entitlements to Natural Resources 3. Interdependence and Global Distributive Justice 4. Contrasts between International and Domestic Society 5. The Rights of States 6. Applications to the Nonideal World
154 161 169
attention P variety oftheoristshave paid insufficient practically to a philosophically interesting and imOLITICAL
portant normative problems of international relations because they have accepted uncritically the conception of the world developed by Hobbes and taken over by many recent writers. By accepting the conception of international relations as a state of nature, they have committed themselves to the view thatinternational relations is primarily concerned with "the rivalries of nation-states, and with the traditional ultima ratio of those rivalries—war."1 As a result, other pressing questions of contemporary international relations have been neglected, and the current debate about new structures of world order has taken place without benefit of the insight and criticism that political philosophers should provide.This book is an attempt to work out a more satisfactory international normative political theory through a critique and revision of orthodox views. To assert the possibility of international political theory, one must first reexamine the traditional image of international relations as a state of nature and purge it of its skeptical elements. The traditional alternative to this view, which I callthe morality of states, must be reconstructed to correct for the persistent misunderstanding of the notion of state autonomy. The result is a third view of international morality, which might be described as cosmopolitan. Many people helped me to develop these thoughts. It is a pleasure to record my thanks to these people here. Thomas Scanlon and Dennis Thompson supervised the preparation of anearlier version of this book as a doctoral dissertation in the political philosophy program at Princeton and continued to help when I undertook extensive further revisions. It is impossible to imagine more supportive advisors or rigorous critics. They cheerfully read a seemingly endless
Stanley Hoffmann, The State of War, p. viii.
series of drafts of the manuscript and...