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Introduction 3

I/ The impact of culture on motivations 4

1. The different motivation models 4
a) Herzberg theory and motivations 4
b) Maslow 5
c) McClelland Theory – Theory of needs 6

2. The link of Hofstede’s, Trompenaars and Hall models with motivations 6
a) Hofstede’s framework 6
b) Edward Hall 7
c) Trompernaars’ model 7

II/ Motivationtechniques used 8

1. Comparison of motivations between France and three Asian countries 8
a) France 8
b) China 10
c) India 12
d) Japan 13

2. Major trends and conclusion 15

Recommandations: 16

Appendix : 17


In this report, we will present a cross-cultural comparison of French and Asian motivations techniques. We will first study the maincultural differences between Asia and France using the Hofstede diagram, Hall and the trompernaars’s models to analyse their influence on the different motivations styles. Then we will use motivation models such as Maslow, Herzberg and Mc Clelland to list out the main cultural differences in motivating people.
After this analysis, we will study more deeply all the motivation means in three Asiancountries: Japan, China and India, and compare them to France. We will use the example of national companies to illustrate our point.

I/ The impact of culture on motivations

The different motivation models

a) Herzberg theory and motivations

Frederick Herzberg creates the two factors theory. To better understand employee attitudes and motivation, Frederick Herzberg performed studiesto determine which factors in an employee’s work environment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation-hygiene theory to explain these results. The satisfiers factor is the motivators and the dissatisfiers is called the hygiene factor (Edward E. Lawler, 1994).
The following table ( is the list of motivator factors and hygiene factor:According to Herzberg there are two different human needs: physiological needs that can be fulfilled by money and psychological need that it is fulfilled by activities.

Cultures implications
However, the people have different behaviors and expectations in function of the cultures. They are not attracted by the same motivation’s factors. For example, Asia and France do not have the samefactors to lead to the job satisfaction.
Indeed, French and Asian employees have not the same criteria about intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors. Even if the rewarding without money is growing in France, It knows that French people are more motivated by extrinsic rewards as salary, benefits or stock option.
French and Asian managers have to lead his employees toward an efficient jobsatisfaction. To set up this, they need to know about both culture differences.

b) Maslow

(Graphic 1. Source: Siniaro, 2009)

In 1943 the American psychologist Abraham Harold Maslow created this hierarchy of needs, which is a pyramid demonstrating the 5 levels of human needs. It starts with reaching the basic or physiological needs like food and water and the highest level is achieving selfactualization. The principle of the pyramid is that a person does not feel the next need until the demands of the previous have been satisfied. So, the needs for self-actualization can not be activated and they can not be motivating if a person is hungry, unsafe, not loved or accepted or has a lacking self-esteem. (Cherry, unknown)

The main criticism is that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs requires astatus-oriented way of thinking and an individualism like you find in western countries such as France, but which are not  as a matter of course. In many collectivistic societal cultures, such as that in Japan and China, the people don’t seek primarily satisfy their physical basic needs before they seek safety and social relationships. Rather, these social relationships such as the affiliation...
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